Protozoa

From Wikispecies
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Nuvola apps important.svg This taxon is (or may be) paraphyletic

Taxonavigation

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protozoa
Phyla: Euglenozoa – Kinetoplastida – Rhizopoda - Microspora - Protozoa incertae sedis

Name

Protozoa Goldfuss, 1817

Vernacular names

Alemannisch: Protozoen
azərbaycanca: Protozoylar
беларуская: Прасцейшыя
català: Protozou
čeština: Prvoci
dansk: Protozoer
Deutsch: Urtiere; Urthiere (obsolete spelling)
español: Protozoo
français: Protozoaire
hrvatski: Praživotinje
magyar: Protozoa
interlingua: Protozoa
Bahasa Indonesia: Protozoa
Ido: Protozoo
Limburgs: Protozoa
Plattdüütsch: Protozoa
norsk nynorsk: Protozo
norsk: Protozo
polski: Pierwotniaki
português: Protozoário
română: Protozoar
Scots: Protozoa
Simple English: Protozoa
slovenčina: Prvoky
svenska: Urdjur
தமிழ்: முன்னுயிரிகள் (புரோட்டோசூவா)

References

Goldfuss, Georg August: Ueber die Entwicklungsstufen des Thieres, Nürnberg, Leonhard Schrag (1817) [1].

Additional references

  • Becker, E. R. & Kühn L. B. 1939: Genera of the protozoa. 65 p. (Mimeographed), [2].
  • Mauch, E., Schmedtje, U., Maetze, A. & Fischer, F. 2003: Taxaliste der Gewässerorganismen Deutschlands zur Kodierung biologischer Befunde, [3]. (With a list of commented determinative literature.)

See also

Alternative classifications

[Note: in most classifications, Protozoa is currently considered a polyphyletic taxon. Some authors (e.g. Cavalier-Smith) still use it as a paraphyletic taxon, although most taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Goldfuss (1820)

From Handbuch der Zoologie.

Class Protozoa

von Siebold (1848)

Lehrbuch der vergleichenden. Vol. 1, Wirbellose Thiere, von C. Th. v. Siebold, 1848. Vol. 2, Wirbelthiere, von H. Stanius, 1846, [4].

Phylum Protozoa

Owen (1860)

From Palæontology or a Systematic Summary of Extinct Animals and Their Geological Relations.

Kingdom Protozoa

Hogg (1860)

Hogg, J. (1860). On the distinctions of a Plant and an Animal and on a Fourth Kingdom of Nature. Edinburgh New Phil. J., N.S. 12: 216–225 [5].

Haeckel (1874)

From Haeckel E (1874). Die Gastrea-Theorie, die phylogenetische Classification des Tierreiches und die Homologie der Keimblatter. Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft, 8, 1–55, [6]. See See Kluge (2004-2014), [7].

[P. 32:]

1. Ablasteria Protozoa Protozoa Protozoa
2. Diblasteria Gastraeada Zoophyta Metazoa
Spongiae
3. Triblasteria Acalephae
4. Tetrablasteria Acoelomi Vermes
5. Pentablasteria Coelomati
Mollusca Typozoa
Echinoderma
Arthropoda
Vertebrata

[P. 33:]

  • Bilateria = Sphenota
    • Vermes I + Vermes II [Sammtlische Würmer]
    • Mollusca [Molluscken]
    • Echinoderma [Echinotermen]
    • Arthropoda [Arthropoden]
    • Vertebrata [Vertebraten]

[P. 52:]

  • Thierreichs
    • Protozoa
    • Metazoa [= Blastozoa, p. 19]
      • Anaemaria
      • Haemataria = Pentablasteria

Lankester (1877)

Lankester, E. R. 1877. Notes on the embryology and classification of the animal kingdom: Comprising a revision of speculations relative to the origin and significance of germ layers. Quartely Journal of Microscopical Science, 68:399-454, [8].

Saville-Kent (1880-1882)

From Saville-Kent, W. (1880-1882). A manual of Infusoria. London: D. Bogue, 3 vols., [9].

Sub-kingdom Protozoa [p. 36]

Sub-kingdom Protozoa [p. 211]

Bütschli (1880-1889)

From Bütschli, O. (1880–1889). Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band: Protozoa. Abt. I, Sarkodina und Sporozoa, 1880-82 [10]. Abt. II, Mastigophora, 1883-87 [11]. Abt. III, Infusoria und System der Radiolaria, 1887-89 [12]. C.F. Winter, Leipzig.

Phylum Protozoa

Lankester (1885, 1891)

Lankester, E. R. (1885). Article "Protozoa". In: Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.), 19: 830–866, [13].

Lankester, E. R. (1891). Article "Protozoa". In: Zoological Articles Contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, [14].

Blochmann (1886)

Die mikroskopische Tierwelt des Süßwassers, 1st ed., 1886, [15].

Protozoa

Haeckel (1889)

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [16]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
    • Thallota (Thallophyta)
      • Algae (Phycophyta)
        • Zygnemaceae
        • Conferveae
        • Fucoideae
        • Florideae
        • Characeae
      • Fungi (Inophyta)
        • Mycetes
        • Lichenes
    • Prothallota (Mesophyta)
      • Bryophyta
      • Pteridophyta
    • Phanerogamae (Anthophyta)
      • Gymnospermae
        • Cycadeae
        • Coniferae
        • Gnetaceae
      • Angiospermae
        • Monocotylae
        • Dicotylae
  • Thierreich
    • Coelenteria (Coelenterata, Zoophyta, Anaemaria)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Coelomaria (Bilaterata, Bilateria, Haemataria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Echinoderma
      • Articulata
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Claus (1891)

From Lehrbuch der zoologie.

Protozoa

Haeckel (1894)

From Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [17].

[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

Pflanzen

  • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
    • Archephyta (Progonella)
      • Probiontes
      • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
    • Algariae (Paulosporata)
      • Paulotomeae
      • Conjugatae
      • Diatomeae
    • Algettae (Zoosporata)
      • Mastigota
      • Melethallia
      • Siphoneae
  • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
    • Thallophyta
      • Algae, [Vol. 1, p. 302]
        • Chlorophyceae
        • Charaphyceae
        • Phaeophyceae
        • Rhodophyceae
      • Mycetes [Vol. 1, p. 316]
        • Ascomycetes (Ascodiomycetes)
        • Basimycetes (Basidiomycetes)
      • Lichenes [Vol. 1, p. 325]
    • Diaphyta [Vol. 1, p. 330]
      • Bryophyta [Vol. 1, p. 336]
      • Pteridophyta
    • Anthophyta
      • Gymnospermae
      • Angiospermae

Thieren

  • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
    • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
      • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
        • Coccillida
        • Bacillida
        • Spirillida
      • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
        • Lobomonera
        • Rhizomonera
    • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
    • Rhizopoda
    • Infusoria
  • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)
    • Coelenteria (Acoelomia)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Bilateria (Coelomaria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Articulata
      • Echinoderma
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Levander (1894)

Levander, K.M. (1894). Materialien zur Kenntnis der Wasserfauna in der Umgebung Helsingfors, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Meeresfauna. I: Protozoa. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 12(2): 3–155, 3 pls, 1 table, [18].

Protozoa

Blochmann (1895)

Blochmann, F. (1895). Die mikroskopische Tierwelt des Süßwassers. Abt. I, Protozoa. In: Kirchner, O. & Blochmann, G., Die mikroskopische Pflanzen- und Tierwelt des Süßwassers. 2. Aufl., Teil II. Hamburg: Gräfe & Sillem, [19].

Protozoa

Delage & Hérouard (1896)

Traité de zoologie concrète, t. 1, [20].

Kalberlah & Schoenichen (1900)

Kalberlah, A. & Schoenichen, W. B. (1900). Eyferth's Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches: Naturgeschichte der mikroskopischen Süsswasserbewohner. 3rd ed. Braunschweig: B. Goeritz, [21].

Doflein (1901)

Doflein, F. (1901). Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1st ed. Further editions: Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde.

Doflein (1902)

Doflein, F. (1902). Das System der Protozoen. Archiv für Protistenkunde 1: 169—192, [22].

Lankester et al. (1903, 1909)

Lankester, E. R. (ed.) A treatise on zoology, vol. 1, fasc. 1 (1909), fasc. 2 (1903), [23].

Protozoa

Hartog (1906)

Hartog, M. (1906). Protozoa. In: The Cambridge Natural History. Vol. 1, Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata and Echinodermata. (eds. S. F. Harmer and A. E. Shipley). London: Macmillan, [24].

Protozoa

Doflein (1911)

From Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde, 3rd ed, 1911. (1st ed. named Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1901).

Protozoa

Minchin (1912)

An introduction to the study of the Protozoa, with special reference to the parasitic forms, 1st ed., [25].

Protozoa

Lühe (1913)

From Lühe, M. 1913: Erstes Urreich der Tiere. In: Lang A, editor. Handbuch der morphologie der wirbellosen Tiere. Jena: G. Fischer. 416 p.

Protozoa

Poche (1913)

Poche, F. 1913. Das System der Protozoa. Archiv für Protistenkunde 30: 125–321, [26].

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss, 1817

Hartmann (1919)

From Hartmann, M. "Allgemeine Morphologie und Physiologie der Protozoen". In: Lehrbuch der Mikrobiologie. Friedberger, E; Pfeiffer, R. [eds.] G. Fischer, 1919, [27], [28].

Protozoa

Calkins (1926)

From The biology of the Protozoa.

Phylum Protozoa

Wenyon (1926)

Wenyon, C. M. 1926. Protozoology, a manual for medical men, veterinarians and zoologists. Baillière, Tyndall and Cox: London; New York: W. Wood. Vols. 1 and 2, [29].

Phylum Protozoa

Sandon (1927)

Sandon, H., 1927. The composition and distribution of the protozoan fauna of the soil. London: Oliver and Boyd, [30].

Protozoa

Wailes (1937-1943)

Wailes, G.H. (1937). Canadian Pacific fauna: 1. Protozoa. 1a. Lobosa; lb. Reticulosa; 1c. Heliozoa; 1d. Radiolaria. pp. 1-14. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Wailes, G.H. (1939). Canadian Pacific fauna. 1. Protozoa. 1e. Mastigophora. pp. 1-45, Fig. 138. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Wailes, G.H. (1943). Canadian Pacific fauna: 1. Protozoa. 1f. Ciliata; 1g. Suctoria. pp. 1-46. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Protozoa

Barkley (1949)

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [31].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
  • Protista
    • Euthallophyta
      • Rhodophyta
      • Chrysophyta
      • Pyrrophyta
      • Euglenophyta
      • Gonidiophyta
      • Charophyta
      • Phaeophyta
      • Myxophyta
      • Mycophyta
    • Protozoa
      • Sarcodina
      • Foraminifera
      • Actinopoda
      • Fungilli
      • Ciliata
      • Suctoria
      • Mesozoa
    • Parazoa
      • Porifera
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Jahn & Jahn (1949)

From Jahn, T.L. and F. F. Jahn, 1949. How to know the Protozoa. Brown, Dubuque, lowa.

Grassé et al. (1952-1994)

From Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.), 1952-1994. Traité de Zoologie. Vol. 1, pt. I, Protozoaires: Flagellés, 1952. Vol. 1, pt. II, Protozoaires: Rhizopodes, Actinopodes, Sporozoaires, Cnidosporidies, 1953. Vol. 2, pt. I, Infusoires ciliés, 1984. Vol. 2, pt. II, Infusoires ciliés, 1994. Masson, Paris. See Fernández-Galiano (1964), [32].

Règne animal

Hall (1953)

From Hall, R.P., 1953. Protozoology. Prentice-Hall, New York, [33]

Protozoa

Pennak (1953)

Pennak, R.W. 1953. Freshwater invertebrates of the United States. 1st ed. Ronald, New York, [34].

Phylum Protozoa

Kudo (1954)

From Protozoology, 4th ed.

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss

Edmondson (1959)

Edmondson, W.T. (ed). 1959. Freshwater biology. 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, [35].

Protista

Levine (1961)

Levine, N. D. 1961. Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co., [36]. 2nd ed., 1973, [37]. 3r ed., 1985, renamed as Veterinary Protozoology, [38].

Mackinnon & Hawes (1961)

Mackinnon, D.C. e Hawes, R.S.J. An Introduction to the Study of Protozoa. Oxford, RU: Oxford University Press, 1961, [39].

Honigberg et al. (1964)

Honigberg, B.M., Balamuth, W., Bovee, E.C., Corliss, J.O., Gojdics, M., Hall, R.P., Kudo, R.R., Levine, N.D., Loeblich, A.R.Jr., Weiser, J. and Wenrich, D.H., 1964: A revised classification of the phylum Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology, 11(1), p. 7-20, [40], [41]. See Fernández-Galiano (1964), [42].

Phylum Protozoa

Dogiel (1965)

General protozoology, 2nd ed.

Type Protozoa

  • Subtype Plasmodroma
    • Class Sarcodina
      • Subclass Rhizopoda
        • Order Amoebida
        • Order Piroplasmida
          • Suborder Piroplasmina
          • Suborder Theileriina
        • Order Testacea
        • Order Foraminifera
      • Subclass Heliozoa
        • Order Actinophryda
        • Order Centrohelida
        • Order Desmothoraca
      • Subclass Radiolaria
        • Order Acantharia
        • Order Spumellaria
        • Order Nassellaria
        • Order Phaeodaria
        • Order Sticholoncha
    • Class Mastigophora (= Flagellata)
      • Subclass Phytomastigina
        • Order Chrysomonadida
        • Order Silicoflagellida
        • Order Cryptomonadida
        • Order Heterochloridida
        • Order Chloromonadida
        • Order Euglenida
        • Order Phytomonadida
        • Order Dinoflagellata
      • Subclass Zoomastigina
        • Order Protomonadida
        • Order Diplomonadida
        • Order Polymastigida
        • Order Hypermastigida
      • Subclass Opalinina
    • Class Sporozoa
      • Subclass Gregarina
        • Order Schizogregarinida
        • Order Eugregarinida
      • Subclass Coccidia (= Coccidiomorpha)
        • Order Protococcidia
        • Order Adeleida
        • Order Coccidiida
          • Suborder Eimeriidea
          • Suborder Haemosporidia
    • Class Cnidosporidia
      • Order Myxosporidia
      • Order Microsporidia
      • Order Actinomyxidia
  • Subtype Ciliophora
    • Class Ciliata (= Infusoria)
      • Subclass Holotricha
        • Order Gymnostomata
        • Order Trichostomata
        • Order Hymenostomata
        • Order Astomata
        • Order Apostomata
        • Order Thigmotricha
      • Subclass Spirotricha
        • Order Heterotricha
        • Order Oligotricha
        • Order Tintinnoidea
        • Order Entodiniomorpha
        • Order Ctenostomata
        • Order Hypotricha
      • Subclass Peritricha
        • Order Sessilida
        • Order Mobilida
      • Subclass Chonotricha
      • Subclass Suctoria
  • "Addendum. Groups of uncertain systematic position: (1) Sarcosporidia and (2) Toxoplasmida, both representing groups of Protozoa related to Sarcodina; Biocca (1956) unites them into one class, Toxoplasmatea; (3) Haplosporidia, which probably do not belong to the Protozoa; (4) Anaplasmida, which are not Protozoa but probably represent Rickettsias."

Grell (1968)

From Grell K.G. (1968): Protozoologie. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd ed., 511 pp., [43], [44].

Protozoa

Manwell (1968)

Manwell, R. D. Introduction to Protozoology. 2nd rev. ed. NY: Dover, 1968.

Protozoa

Lepinis et al. (1973)

Lepinis, A. K., Geltser, Yu. G., Chibisova, O. I. & Geptner, V. A. (1973). A key of soil Protozoa of European part of USSR. Mintis, Vilnius (in Russian), [45].

Protozoa

Westphal (1974)

Westphal, A. (1974). Protozoen. In: Spezielle Zoologie, Band 1. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer. English translation, 1976, [46].

Protozoa

Lauckner (1980)

Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 75-134., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, [47].

Protozoa

Levine et al. (1980)

Levine, N. D.; J. O. Corliss; F. E. G. Cox; G. Deroux; J. Grain; B. M. Honigberg; G. F. Leedale; A. R. Loeblich, III; J. Lom; D. Lynn; E. G. Merinfeld; F. C. Page; G. Poljansky; V. Sprague; J. Vavra; and F. G. Wallace (1980). A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. J. Protozool., 27:37–58, [48], [49].

Subkingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [50].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa
      • Phylum Proterozoa (proteromonads, cyathobodonids, Opalinida)
      • Phylum Dinozoa (dinoflagellates)
      • Phylum Parabasalia (trichomonads and hypermastigids)
      • Phylum Metamonadina (retortomonads, diplomonads, and oxymonads)
      • Phylum Sporozoa (cregarines, coccidlans, and piroplasms)
      • Phylum Infusoria (Ciliophora)
      • Phylum Foraminifera
      • Phylum Sarcodina (amoebae, amoeboflagellates, slime moulds (Mycetozoa), Radiolaria, Heliozoa, Acantharia, Myxosporea, Microsporea)

Parker et al. (1982)

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [51], [52]. See Brands (1989-2005), [53]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Thallobionta
      • Division Rhodophycota
      • Division Chromophycota
      • Division Euglenophycota
      • Division Chlorophycota
      • Division Myxomycota
      • Division Eumycota
    • Subkingdom Embryobionta
    • Genus Echites
  • Kingdom Protista (Haeckel, 1866)
    • Phylum Euprotista [“containing the grat majority of protistans”]
    • Phylum Gymnomyxa
      • Subphylum Mycetozoa
      • Subphylum Plasmodiophorina
      • Subphylum Labyrinthulina
  • Kingdom Animalia 1758
    • Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818)
      • Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Honigberg & Balamuth, 1963)
      • Phylum Labyrinthulata
      • Phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970
      • Phylum Microspora Sprague, 1977
      • Phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970
      • Phylum Ascetospora
      • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901
    • Subkingdom Phagocytellozoa
      • Phylum Placozoa Grell, 1971
    • Subkingdom Parazoa (Sollas, 1884)
      • Phylum Porifera Grant, in Todd, 1836
    • Subkingdom Eumetazoa (Butschli, 1910)

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [54].]

Honigberg (1984)

Honigberg, B.M. (Chairman and Rapporteur) 1984. Phylogenetic relationships among protozoa (A round-table discussion), in Progress in Protozoology. VI Cong. Protozool., Warsaw, Poland, July 1981, [55].

Subkingdom Protozoa

Lee et al. (1985)

From J.J. Lee, S.H. Hutner and E.C. Bovee, (eds.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, Society of Protozoologists, 1st ed., 1985, [56]. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [57].

Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818) von Siebold, 1846

Cavalier-Smith (1987)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The origin of eukaryote and archaebacterial cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503, 17–54.

Kreier & Baker (1987)

Kreier, J.P. and J.R. Baker. Parasitic Protozoa. London: Allen & Unwin, 1987, [58].

parasitic protozoa

Harrison & Corliss (1991)

Harrison, F. W. and Corliss, J. O. (eds.) 1991. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates, Vol. I, Protozoa. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York. 493 pp., [59], [60].

"protozoa"

Kreier (1991-1995)

Kreier, J.P. (ed.). 1991-1995. Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed. 10 vols. (1-3 coedited by Baker, J.R.). Academic Press, San Diego, California, [61], [62]. (1st ed.: 1977, 4 vols.).

"parasitic protozoa"

Cavalier-Smith (1993)

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [63].

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1996/97)

From Amoeboflagellates and mitochondrial cristae in eukaryote evolution: megasystematics of the new protozoan subkingdoms eozoa and neozoa, [64], [65].

Kingdom Protozoa

Patterson (1996)

Patterson, D.J. (1996). Free-living freshwater protozoa: a colour guide. John Wiley & Sons: New York; Manson Publishing: London; UNSW Press; Sydney. 223 p., [66].

"protozoa"

Cavalier-Smith (1998a)

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. Neomonada and the origin of animals and fungi. In: Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA, Warren A (ed.) Evolutionary relationships among protozoa. Kluwer, London, pp. 375-407, [67].

Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1998b)

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [68].

Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
    • Subkingdom 1. Archezoa Cavalier-Smith 1983 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
      • Phylum 1. Metamonada Grassé 1952 stat. nov. et em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
        • Subphylum 1. Eopharyngia Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Giardia, Hexamita, Trepomonas, Chilomastix)
        • Subphylum 2. Axostylaria Grassé 1952 stat. nov. em. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Oxymonas, Pyrsonympha)
      • Phylum 2. Trichozoa Cavalier-Smith 1997
        • Subphylum 1. Anaeromonada Cavalier-Smith 1997 (Trimastix)
        • Subphylum 2. Parabasala Honigberg 1973 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Trichomonas, Trichonympha)
    • Subkingdom 2. Neozoa Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. 1997 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
      • Infrakingdom 1. Sarcomastigota Cavalier-Smith 1983 stat. nov. em. [probably paraphyletic]
        • Phylum 1. Neomonada Cavalier-Smith 1997. [probably paraphyletic]
          • Subphylum 1. Apusozoa Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Apusomonas, Ancyromonas, Jakoba, Reclinomonas Ebria)
          • Subphylum 2. Isomita Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Phalansterium, Cyathobodo, Kathablepharis)
          • Subphylum 3. Choanozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 em. 1983 stat. nov. (e.g. Monosiga, Diaphanoeca, Corallochytrium, Psorospermium) [probably paraphyletic.]
        • Phylum 2. Cercozoa phyl. nov. (syn. Rhizopoda Von Siebold 1845 stat. nov. Haeckel 1886 as emended by Cavalier-Smith 1995b, 1997a; present phylum emended by addition of Spongomonadida and transfer of Cristidiscoidia to Choanozoa: Cavalier-Smith, 1997b)
        • Phylum 3. Foraminifera (D’Orbigny 1826) Eichwald 1830 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Allogromia, Ammonia)
        • Phylum 4. Amoebozoa Lühe 1913 stat. nov. em.
          • Subphylum 1. Lobosa Carpenter 1861 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 em. (e.g. Amoeba, Acanthamoeba, Arcella, Difflugia, Multicilia)
          • Subphylum 2. Conosa subphyl. nov.
            • Infraphylum 1. Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith 1983 stat. nov. (e.g. Pelomyxa, Mastigamoeba, Phreatamoeba, Entamoeba)
            • Infraphylum 2. Mycetozoa De Bary 1859 stat. nov.
              • Superclass 1. Eumyxa Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. (e.g. Protostelium, Physarum) [probably paraphyletic]
              • Superclass 2. Dictyostelia Lister 1909 stat. nov. (e.g. Dictyostelium)
      • Infrakingdom 2. Discicristata infraking. nov.
        • Phylum 1. Percolozoa Cavalier-Smith 1991.
          • Subphylum 1. Tetramitia Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Percolomonas, Naegleria)
          • Subphylum 2. Pseudociliata Cavalier-Smith 1993 (Stephanopogon)
        • Phylum 2. Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981.
          • Subphylum 1. Plicostoma subphyl. nov.
            • Superclass Diplonemia Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. (e.g. Diplonema)
            • Superclass Euglenoida Bütschli 1884 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Euglena, Petalomonas, Peranema)
          • Subphylum 2. Saccostoma subphyl. nov.
            • Class Kinetoplastea Honigberg 1963 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Bodo, Trypanosoma, Leishmania)
            • Class Postgaardea cl. nov. (sole genus Postgaardi Simpson et al., 1997)
      • Infrakingdom 3. Alveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em.
        • Superphylum 1. Miozoa Cavalier-Smith 1987.
          • Phylum 1. Dinozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.
            • Subphylum 1. Protalveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em. (e.g. Colponema, Ellobiopsis, Spironema, Hemimastix, Colpodella, Perkinsus) [probably paraphyletic]
            • Subphylum 2. Dinoflagellata Bütschli 1885 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1991 (e.g. Noctiluca, Crypthecodinium, Amphidinium)
          • Phylum 2. Sporozoa Leuckart 1879 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1981 (syns Telosporidia Schaudinn 1900; Euspora Levine 1961; Polannulifera Levine 1969; Apicomplexa Levine 1970 pro parte)
            • Subphylum 1. Gregarinae Haeckel 1866 stat. nov. (e.g. Monocystis)
            • Subphylum 2. Coccidiomorpha Doflein 1901
              • Superclass Coccidia Leuckart 1879 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma, Eimeria)
              • Superclass Ascetospora Sprague 1979 stat. nov. (e.g. Haplosporidium, Paramyxa)
              • Superclass Hematozoa Vivier 1982 stat. nov. (e.g. Plasmodium, Babesia)
            • Subphylum 3. Manubrispora subphyl. nov.
              • Class Metchnikovellea Weiser 1977 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1993 to exclude Minisporea (e.g. Metchnikovella)
        • Superphylum 2. Heterokaryota Hickson 1903 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993.
          • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. nov. Copeland 1956 em. auct.
            • Subphylum 1. Tubulicorticata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Loxodes, Stylonychia, Colpoda)
            • Subphylum 2. Epiplasmata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Tetrahymena, Paramecium, Vorticella)
            • Subphylum 3. Filocorticata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Spathidium)
      • Infrakingdom 4. Actinopoda Calkins 1902 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997
        • Phylum 1. Heliozoa Haeckel 1886 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Actinophrys, Acanthocystis)
        • Phylum 2. Radiozoa Cavalier-Smith 1987.
          • Subphylum 1. Spasmaria Cavalier-Smith 1993 (Sticholonche, acantharians, e.g. Acanthometra)
          • Subphylum 2. Radiolaria Müller 1858 emend. stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Thallassicolla, Aulacantha)
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
  • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Nees 1817 em.
  • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Cavalier-Smith (1999)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). Zooflagellate phylogeny and the systematics of Protozoa. Biological Bulletin, 393-396, [69].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1999)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 46(4), 347-366, [70].

Kingdom Protozoa

Lee et al. (2000)

From Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. (appeared 2002, dated 2000). An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A: Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press; 2nd ed., vol. 1, vol. 2. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [71].

"protozoa" [p. iv]

Cavalier-Smith (2002)

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa, [72].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (2003)

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [73], [74].

Kingdom Protozoa (11 phyla)

Cavalier-Smith (2004)

From Only six kingdoms of life, [75].

Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)

Cavalier-Smith (2010)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [76].

Eukaryota

Taylor & Sanders (2010)

Taylor, W.D. & R.W. Sanders. 2010. Protozoa. pp. 43-96. In: Thorp, J.H. & Covich, A.P. (eds.) The Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. 3rd ed. Academic Press, [77].

"protozoa"

Ruggiero et al. (2015)