Protozoa

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protozoa
Subregna: Eozoa – Sarcomastigota – Protozoa incertae sedis

Name[edit]

Protozoa Goldfuss, 1817

References[edit]

Georg August Goldfuss: Ueber die Entwicklungsstufen des Thieres, Nürnberg, Leonhard Schrag (1817) [1].

Additional bibliography[edit]

  • Becker, E. R. & Kühn L. B. 1939: Genera of the protozoa. 65 p. (Mimeographed), [2].
  • Mauch, E., Schmedtje, U., Maetze, A. & Fischer, F. 2003: Taxaliste der Gewässerorganismen Deutschlands zur Kodierung biologischer Befunde, [3]. (With a list of commented determinative literature.)

Vernacular names[edit]

Alemannisch: Protozoen
azərbaycanca: Protozoylar
Bahasa Indonesia: Protozoa
català: Protozou
čeština: Prvoci
dansk: Protozoer
Deutsch: Urtiere; Urthiere (obsolete spelling)
español: Protozoo
français: Protozoaire
Ido: Protozoo
interlingua: Protozoa
Limburgs: Protozoa
magyar: Protozoa
norsk bokmål: Protozo
norsk nynorsk: Protozo
Plattdüütsch: Protozoa
português: Protozoário
română: Protozoar
Scots: Protozoa
Simple English: Protozoa
slovenčina: Prvosky
svenska: Urdjur

See also[edit]


Contents

Classifications[edit]

[Note: in most classifications, Protozoa is currently considered a polyphyletic taxon. Some authors (e.g. Cavalier-Smith) still use it as a paraphyletic taxon, although most taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Goldfuss (1820)[edit]

From Handbuch der Zoologie.

Class Protozoa

von Siebold (1848)[edit]

Lehrbuch der vergleichenden. Vol. 1, Wirbellose Thiere, von C. Th. v. Siebold, 1848. Vol. 2, Wirbelthiere, von H. Stanius, 1846, [4].

Phylum Protozoa

Owen (1860)[edit]

From Palæontology or a Systematic Summary of Extinct Animals and Their Geological Relations.

Kingdom Protozoa

Hogg (1860)[edit]

Hogg, J. (1860). On the distinctions of a Plant and an Animal and on a Fourth Kingdom of Nature. Edinburgh New Phil. J., N.S. 12: 216–225 [5].

Haeckel (1874)[edit]

From Haeckel E (1874). Die Gastrea-Theorie, die phylogenetische Classification des Tierreiches und die Homologie der Keimblatter. Jenaische Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft, 8, 1–55, [6]. See See Kluge (2004-2014), [7].

[P. 32:]

1. Ablasteria Protozoa Protozoa Protozoa
2. Diblasteria Gastraeada Zoophyta Metazoa
Spongiae
3. Triblasteria Acalephae
4. Tetrablasteria Acoelomi Vermes
5. Pentablasteria Coelomati
Mollusca Typozoa
Echinoderma
Arthropoda
Vertebrata

[P. 33:]

  • Bilateria = Sphenota
    • Vermes I + Vermes II [Sammtlische Würmer]
    • Mollusca [Molluscken]
    • Echinoderma [Echinotermen]
    • Arthropoda [Arthropoden]
    • Vertebrata [Vertebraten]

[P. 52:]

  • Thierreichs
    • Protozoa
    • Metazoa [= Blastozoa, p. 19]
      • Anaemaria
      • Haemataria = Pentablasteria

Lankester (1877)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. 1877. Notes on the embryology and classification of the animal kingdom: Comprising a revision of speculations relative to the origin and significance of germ layers. Quartely Journal of Microscopical Science, 68:399-454, [8].

Saville-Kent (1880-1882)[edit]

From Saville-Kent, W. (1880-1882). A manual of Infusoria. London: D. Bogue, 3 vols., [9].

Sub-kingdom Protozoa [p. 36]

Sub-kingdom Protozoa [p. 211]

Bütschli (1880-1889)[edit]

From Bütschli, O. (1880–1889). Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band: Protozoa. Abt. I, Sarkodina und Sporozoa, 1880-82 [10]. Abt. II, Mastigophora, 1883-87 [11]. Abt. III, Infusoria und System der Radiolaria, 1887-89 [12]. C.F. Winter, Leipzig.

Phylum Protozoa

Lankester (1885, 1891)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. (1885). Article "Protozoa". In: Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.), 19: 830-866, [13].

Lankester, E. R. (1891). Article "Protozoa". In: Zoological Articles Contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, [14].

Blochmann (1886)[edit]

Die mikroskopische Tierwelt des Süßwassers, 1st ed., 1886, [15].

Protozoa

Haeckel (1889)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [16]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
    • Thallota (Thallophyta)
      • Algae (Phycophyta)
        • Zygnemaceae
        • Conferveae
        • Fucoideae
        • Florideae
        • Characeae
      • Fungi (Inophyta)
        • Mycetes
        • Lichenes
    • Prothallota (Mesophyta)
      • Bryophyta
      • Pteridophyta
    • Phanerogamae (Anthophyta)
      • Gymnospermae
        • Cycadeae
        • Coniferae
        • Gnetaceae
      • Angiospermae
        • Monocotylae
        • Dicotylae
  • Thierreich
    • Coelenteria (Coelenterata, Zoophyta, Anaemaria)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Coelomaria (Bilaterata, Bilateria, Haemataria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Echinoderma
      • Articulata
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Claus (1891)[edit]

From Lehrbuch der zoologie.

Protozoa

Haeckel (1894)[edit]

From Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [17].

[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

Pflanzen

  • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
    • Archephyta (Progonella)
      • Probiontes
      • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
    • Algariae (Paulosporata)
      • Paulotomeae
      • Conjugatae
      • Diatomeae
    • Algettae (Zoosporata)
      • Mastigota
      • Melethallia
      • Siphoneae
  • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
    • Thallophyta
      • Algae, [Vol. 1, p. 302]
        • Chlorophyceae
        • Charaphyceae
        • Phaeophyceae
        • Rhodophyceae
      • Mycetes [Vol. 1, p. 316]
        • Ascomycetes (Ascodiomycetes)
        • Basimycetes (Basidiomycetes)
      • Lichenes [Vol. 1, p. 325]
    • Diaphyta [Vol. 1, p. 330]
      • Bryophyta [Vol. 1, p. 336]
      • Pteridophyta
    • Anthophyta
      • Gymnospermae
      • Angiospermae

Thieren

  • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
    • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
      • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
        • Coccillida
        • Bacillida
        • Spirillida
      • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
        • Lobomonera
        • Rhizomonera
    • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
    • Rhizopoda
    • Infusoria
  • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)
    • Coelenteria (Acoelomia)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Bilateria (Coelomaria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Articulata
      • Echinoderma
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Levander (1894)[edit]

Levander, K.M. (1894). Materialien zur Kenntnis der Wasserfauna in der Umgebung Helsingfors, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Meeresfauna. I: Protozoa. Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 12(2): 3-155, 3 pls, 1 table, [18].

Protozoa

Blochmann (1895)[edit]

Blochmann, F. (1895). Die mikroskopische Tierwelt des Süßwassers. Abt. I, Protozoa. In: Kirchner, O. & Blochmann, G., Die mikroskopische Pflanzen- und Tierwelt des Süßwassers. 2. Aufl., Teil II. Hamburg: Gräfe & Sillem, [19].

Protozoa

Delage & Hérouard (1896)[edit]

Traité de zoologie concrète, t. 1, [20].

Kalberlah & Schoenichen (1900)[edit]

Kalberlah, A. & Schoenichen, W. B. (1900). Eyferth's Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches: Naturgeschichte der mikroskopischen Süsswasserbewohner. 3rd ed. Braunschweig: B. Goeritz, [21].

Doflein (1901)[edit]

Doflein, F. (1901). Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1st ed. Further editions: Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde.

Doflein (1902)[edit]

Doflein, F. (1902). Das System der Protozoen. Archiv für Protistenkunde 1: 169—192, [22].

Lankester et al. (1903, 1909)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. (ed.) A treatise on zoology, vol. 1, fasc. 1 (1909), fasc. 2 (1903), [23].

Protozoa

Hartog (1906)[edit]

Hartog, M. (1906). Protozoa. In: The Cambridge Natural History. Vol. 1, Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata and Echinodermata. (eds. S. F. Harmer and A. E. Shipley). London: Macmillan, [24].

Protozoa

Doflein (1911)[edit]

From Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde, 3rd ed, 1911. (1st ed. named Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1901).

Protozoa

Minchin (1912)[edit]

An introduction to the study of the Protozoa, with special reference to the parasitic forms, 1st ed., [25].

Protozoa

Lühe (1913)[edit]

From Lühe, M. 1913: Erstes Urreich der Tiere. In: Lang A, editor. Handbuch der morphologie der wirbellosen Tiere. Jena: G. Fischer. 416 p.

Protozoa

Poche (1913)[edit]

Poche, F. 1913. Das System der Protozoa. Archiv für Protistenkunde 30: 125-321, [26].

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss, 1817

Hartmann (1919)[edit]

From Hartmann, M. "Allgemeine Morphologie und Physiologie der Protozoen". In: Lehrbuch der Mikrobiologie. Friedberger, E; Pfeiffer, R. [eds.] G. Fischer, 1919, [27], [28].

Protozoa

Calkins (1926)[edit]

From The biology of the Protozoa.

Phylum Protozoa

Wenyon (1926)[edit]

Wenyon, C. M. 1926. Protozoology, a manual for medical men, veterinarians and zoologists. Baillière, Tyndall and Cox: London; New York: W. Wood. Vols. 1 and 2, [29].

Phylum Protozoa

Sandon (1927)[edit]

Sandon, H., 1927. The composition and distribution of the protozoan fauna of the soil. London: Oliver and Boyd, [30].

Protozoa

Wailes (1937-1943)[edit]

Wailes, G.H. (1937). Canadian Pacific fauna: 1. Protozoa. 1a. Lobosa; lb. Reticulosa; 1c. Heliozoa; 1d. Radiolaria. pp. 1-14. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Wailes, G.H. (1939). Canadian Pacific fauna. 1. Protozoa. 1e. Mastigophora. pp. 1-45, Fig. 138. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Wailes, G.H. (1943). Canadian Pacific fauna: 1. Protozoa. 1f. Ciliata; 1g. Suctoria. pp. 1-46. Toronto: Univ. Toronto Press, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.

Protozoa

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83-103, [31].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
  • Protista
    • Euthallophyta
      • Rhodophyta
      • Chrysophyta
      • Pyrrophyta
      • Euglenophyta
      • Gonidiophyta
      • Charophyta
      • Phaeophyta
      • Myxophyta
      • Mycophyta
    • Protozoa
      • Sarcodina
      • Foraminifera
      • Actinopoda
      • Fungilli
      • Ciliata
      • Suctoria
      • Mesozoa
    • Parazoa
      • Porifera
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Jahn & Jahn (1949)[edit]

From Jahn, T.L. and F. F. Jahn, 1949. How to know the Protozoa. Brown, Dubuque, lowa.

Grassé et al. (1952-1994)[edit]

From Grassé, P.-P. (Ed.), 1952-1994. Traité de Zoologie. Vol. 1, pt. I, Protozoaires: Flagellés, 1952. Vol. 1, pt. II, Protozoaires: Rhizopodes, Actinopodes, Sporozoaires, Cnidosporidies, 1953. Vol. 2, pt. I, Infusoires ciliés, 1984. Vol. 2, pt. II, Infusoires ciliés, 1994. Masson, Paris. See Fernández-Galiano (1964), [32].

Règne animal

Hall (1953)[edit]

From Hall, R.P., 1953. Protozoology. Prentice-Hall, New York, [33]

Protozoa

Pennak (1953)[edit]

Pennak, R.W. 1953. Freshwater invertebrates of the United States. 1st ed. Ronald, New York, [34].

Phylum Protozoa

Kudo (1954)[edit]

From Protozoology, 4th ed.

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss

Edmondson (1959)[edit]

Edmondson, W.T. (ed). 1959. Freshwater biology. 2nd ed. Wiley, New York, [35].

Protista

Levine (1961)[edit]

Levine, N. D. 1961. Protozoan parasites of domestic animals and of man. Minneapolis, Burgess Pub. Co., [36]. 2nd ed., 1973, [37]. 3r ed., 1985, renamed as Veterinary Protozoology, [38].

Mackinnon & Hawes (1961)[edit]

Mackinnon, D.C. e Hawes, R.S.J. An Introduction to the Study of Protozoa. Oxford, RU: Oxford University Press, 1961, [39].

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

Honigberg, B.M., Balamuth, W., Bovee, E.C., Corliss, J.O., Gojdics, M., Hall, R.P., Kudo, R.R., Levine, N.D., Loeblich, A.R.Jr., Weiser, J. and Wenrich, D.H., 1964: A revised classification of the phylum Protozoa. Journal of Protozoology, 11(1), p. 7-20, [40], [41]. See Fernández-Galiano (1964), [42].

Phylum Protozoa

Dogiel (1965)[edit]

General protozoology, 2nd ed.

Type Protozoa

  • Subtype Plasmodroma
    • Class Sarcodina
      • Subclass Rhizopoda
        • Order Amoebida
        • Order Piroplasmida
          • Suborder Piroplasmina
          • Suborder Theileriina
        • Order Testacea
        • Order Foraminifera
      • Subclass Heliozoa
        • Order Actinophryda
        • Order Centrohelida
        • Order Desmothoraca
      • Subclass Radiolaria
        • Order Acantharia
        • Order Spumellaria
        • Order Nassellaria
        • Order Phaeodaria
        • Order Sticholoncha
    • Class Mastigophora (= Flagellata)
      • Subclass Phytomastigina
        • Order Chrysomonadida
        • Order Silicoflagellida
        • Order Cryptomonadida
        • Order Heterochloridida
        • Order Chloromonadida
        • Order Euglenida
        • Order Phytomonadida
        • Order Dinoflagellata
      • Subclass Zoomastigina
        • Order Protomonadida
        • Order Diplomonadida
        • Order Polymastigida
        • Order Hypermastigida
      • Subclass Opalinina
    • Class Sporozoa
      • Subclass Gregarina
        • Order Schizogregarinida
        • Order Eugregarinida
      • Subclass Coccidia (= Coccidiomorpha)
        • Order Protococcidia
        • Order Adeleida
        • Order Coccidiida
          • Suborder Eimeriidea
          • Suborder Haemosporidia
    • Class Cnidosporidia
      • Order Myxosporidia
      • Order Microsporidia
      • Order Actinomyxidia
  • Subtype Ciliophora
    • Class Ciliata (= Infusoria)
      • Subclass Holotricha
        • Order Gymnostomata
        • Order Trichostomata
        • Order Hymenostomata
        • Order Astomata
        • Order Apostomata
        • Order Thigmotricha
      • Subclass Spirotricha
        • Order Heterotricha
        • Order Oligotricha
        • Order Tintinnoidea
        • Order Entodiniomorpha
        • Order Ctenostomata
        • Order Hypotricha
      • Subclass Peritricha
        • Order Sessilida
        • Order Mobilida
      • Subclass Chonotricha
      • Subclass Suctoria
  • "Addendum. Groups of uncertain systematic position: (1) Sarcosporidia and (2) Toxoplasmida, both representing groups of Protozoa related to Sarcodina; Biocca (1956) unites them into one class, Toxoplasmatea; (3) Haplosporidia, which probably do not belong to the Protozoa; (4) Anaplasmida, which are not Protozoa but probably represent Rickettsias."

Grell (1968)[edit]

From Grell K.G. (1968): Protozoologie. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2nd ed., 511 pp., [43], [44].

Protozoa

Manwell (1968)[edit]

Manwell, R. D. Introduction to Protozoology. 2nd rev. ed. NY: Dover, 1968.

Protozoa

Lepinis et al. (1973)[edit]

Lepinis, A. K., Geltser, Yu. G., Chibisova, O. I. & Geptner, V. A. (1973). A key of soil Protozoa of European part of USSR. Mintis, Vilnius (in Russian), [45].

Protozoa

Westphal (1974)[edit]

Westphal, A. (1974). Protozoen. In: Spezielle Zoologie, Band 1. Stuttgart: Verlag Eugen Ulmer. English translation, 1976, [46].

Protozoa

Lauckner (1980)[edit]

Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 75-134., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, [47].

Protozoa

Levine et al. (1980)[edit]

Levine, N. D.; J. O. Corliss; F. E. G. Cox; G. Deroux; J. Grain; B. M. Honigberg; G. F. Leedale; A. R. Loeblich, III; J. Lom; D. Lynn; E. G. Merinfeld; F. C. Page; G. Poljansky; V. Sprague; J. Vavra; and F. G. Wallace (1980). A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. J. Protozool., 27:37–58, [48], [49].

Subkingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [50].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa
      • Phylum Proterozoa (proteromonads, cyathobodonids, Opalinida)
      • Phylum Dinozoa (dinoflagellates)
      • Phylum Parabasalia (trichomonads and hypermastigids)
      • Phylum Metamonadina (retortomonads, diplomonads, and oxymonads)
      • Phylum Sporozoa (cregarines, coccidlans, and piroplasms)
      • Phylum Infusoria (Ciliophora)
      • Phylum Foraminifera
      • Phylum Sarcodina (amoebae, amoeboflagellates, slime moulds (Mycetozoa), Radiolaria, Heliozoa, Acantharia, Myxosporea, Microsporea)

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [51], [52]. See Brands (1989-2005), [53]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Thallobionta
      • Division Rhodophycota
      • Division Chromophycota
      • Division Euglenophycota
      • Division Chlorophycota
      • Division Myxomycota
      • Division Eumycota
    • Subkingdom Embryobionta
    • Genus Echites
  • Kingdom Protista (Haeckel, 1866)
    • Phylum Euprotista [“containing the grat majority of protistans”]
    • Phylum Gymnomyxa
      • Subphylum Mycetozoa
      • Subphylum Plasmodiophorina
      • Subphylum Labyrinthulina
  • Kingdom Animalia 1758
    • Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818)
      • Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Honigberg & Balamuth, 1963)
      • Phylum Labyrinthulata
      • Phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970
      • Phylum Microspora Sprague, 1977
      • Phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970
      • Phylum Ascetospora
      • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901
    • Subkingdom Phagocytellozoa
      • Phylum Placozoa Grell, 1971
    • Subkingdom Parazoa (Sollas, 1884)
      • Phylum Porifera Grant, in Todd, 1836
    • Subkingdom Eumetazoa (Butschli, 1910)

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [54].]

Honigberg (1984)[edit]

Honigberg, B.M. (Chairman and Rapporteur) 1984. Phylogenetic relationships among protozoa (A round-table discussion), in Progress in Protozoology. VI Cong. Protozool., Warsaw, Poland, July 1981, [55].

Subkingdom Protozoa

Lee et al. (1985)[edit]

From J.J. Lee, S.H. Hutner and E.C. Bovee, (eds.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, Society of Protozoologists, 1st ed., 1985, [56]. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [57].

Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818) von Siebold, 1846

  • Subphylum Opalinata Corliss & Balamuth, 1963

Cavalier-Smith (1987)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The origin of eukaryote and archaebacterial cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503, 17–54.

Kreier & Baker (1987)[edit]

Kreier, J.P. and J.R. Baker. Parasitic Protozoa. London: Allen & Unwin, 1987, [58].

"parasitic protozoa

Kreier (1991-1995)[edit]

Kreier, J.P. (ed.). 1991-1995. Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed. 10 vols. (1-3 coedited by Baker, J.R.). Academic Press, San Diego, California, [59], [60]. (1st ed.: 1977, 4 vols.).

"parasitic protozoa"

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [61].

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1996/97)[edit]

From Amoeboflagellates and mitochondrial cristae in eukaryote evolution: megasystematics of the new protozoan subkingdoms eozoa and neozoa, [62], [63].

Kingdom Protozoa

Patterson (1996)[edit]

Patterson, D.J. (1996). Free-living freshwater protozoa: a colour guide. John Wiley & Sons: New York; Manson Publishing: London; UNSW Press; Sydney. 223 p., [64].

"protozoa"

Cavalier-Smith (1998a)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. Neomonada and the origin of animals and fungi. In: Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA, Warren A (ed.) Evolutionary relationships among protozoa. Kluwer, London, pp. 375-407, [65].

Eukaryota

  • Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1998b)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [66].

Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
    • Subkingdom 1. Archezoa Cavalier-Smith 1983 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
      • Phylum 1. Metamonada Grassé 1952 stat. nov. et em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
        • Subphylum 1. Eopharyngia Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Giardia, Hexamita, Trepomonas, Chilomastix)
        • Subphylum 2. Axostylaria Grassé 1952 stat. nov. em. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Oxymonas, Pyrsonympha)
      • Phylum 2. Trichozoa Cavalier-Smith 1997
        • Subphylum 1. Anaeromonada Cavalier-Smith 1997 (Trimastix)
        • Subphylum 2. Parabasala Honigberg 1973 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Trichomonas, Trichonympha)
    • Subkingdom 2. Neozoa Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. 1997 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
      • Infrakingdom 1. Sarcomastigota Cavalier-Smith 1983 stat. nov. em. [probably paraphyletic]
        • Phylum 1. Neomonada Cavalier-Smith 1997. [probably paraphyletic]
          • Subphylum 1. Apusozoa Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Apusomonas, Ancyromonas, Jakoba, Reclinomonas Ebria)
          • Subphylum 2. Isomita Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Phalansterium, Cyathobodo, Kathablepharis)
          • Subphylum 3. Choanozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 em. 1983 stat. nov. (e.g. Monosiga, Diaphanoeca, Corallochytrium, Psorospermium) [probably paraphyletic.]
        • Phylum 2. Cercozoa phyl. nov. (syn. Rhizopoda Von Siebold 1845 stat. nov. Haeckel 1886 as emended by Cavalier-Smith 1995b, 1997a; present phylum emended by addition of Spongomonadida and transfer of Cristidiscoidia to Choanozoa: Cavalier-Smith, 1997b)
        • Phylum 3. Foraminifera (D’Orbigny 1826) Eichwald 1830 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Allogromia, Ammonia)
        • Phylum 4. Amoebozoa Lühe 1913 stat. nov. em.
          • Subphylum 1. Lobosa Carpenter 1861 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 em. (e.g. Amoeba, Acanthamoeba, Arcella, Difflugia, Multicilia)
          • Subphylum 2. Conosa subphyl. nov.
            • Infraphylum 1. Archamoebae Cavalier-Smith 1983 stat. nov. (e.g. Pelomyxa, Mastigamoeba, Phreatamoeba, Entamoeba)
            • Infraphylum 2. Mycetozoa De Bary 1859 stat. nov.
              • Superclass 1. Eumyxa Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. (e.g. Protostelium, Physarum) [probably paraphyletic]
              • Superclass 2. Dictyostelia Lister 1909 stat. nov. (e.g. Dictyostelium)
      • Infrakingdom 2. Discicristata infraking. nov.
        • Phylum 1. Percolozoa Cavalier-Smith 1991.
          • Subphylum 1. Tetramitia Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Percolomonas, Naegleria)
          • Subphylum 2. Pseudociliata Cavalier-Smith 1993 (Stephanopogon)
        • Phylum 2. Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981.
          • Subphylum 1. Plicostoma subphyl. nov.
            • Superclass Diplonemia Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. (e.g. Diplonema)
            • Superclass Euglenoida Bütschli 1884 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997 (e.g. Euglena, Petalomonas, Peranema)
          • Subphylum 2. Saccostoma subphyl. nov.
            • Class Kinetoplastea Honigberg 1963 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Bodo, Trypanosoma, Leishmania)
            • Class Postgaardea cl. nov. (sole genus Postgaardi Simpson et al., 1997)
      • Infrakingdom 3. Alveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em.
        • Superphylum 1. Miozoa Cavalier-Smith 1987.
          • Phylum 1. Dinozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.
            • Subphylum 1. Protalveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em. (e.g. Colponema, Ellobiopsis, Spironema, Hemimastix, Colpodella, Perkinsus) [probably paraphyletic]
            • Subphylum 2. Dinoflagellata Bütschli 1885 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1991 (e.g. Noctiluca, Crypthecodinium, Amphidinium)
          • Phylum 2. Sporozoa Leuckart 1879 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1981 (syns Telosporidia Schaudinn 1900; Euspora Levine 1961; Polannulifera Levine 1969; Apicomplexa Levine 1970 pro parte)
            • Subphylum 1. Gregarinae Haeckel 1866 stat. nov. (e.g. Monocystis)
            • Subphylum 2. Coccidiomorpha Doflein 1901
              • Superclass Coccidia Leuckart 1879 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma, Eimeria)
              • Superclass Ascetospora Sprague 1979 stat. nov. (e.g. Haplosporidium, Paramyxa)
              • Superclass Hematozoa Vivier 1982 stat. nov. (e.g. Plasmodium, Babesia)
            • Subphylum 3. Manubrispora subphyl. nov.
              • Class Metchnikovellea Weiser 1977 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1993 to exclude Minisporea (e.g. Metchnikovella)
        • Superphylum 2. Heterokaryota Hickson 1903 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993.
          • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. nov. Copeland 1956 em. auct.
            • Subphylum 1. Tubulicorticata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Loxodes, Stylonychia, Colpoda)
            • Subphylum 2. Epiplasmata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Tetrahymena, Paramecium, Vorticella)
            • Subphylum 3. Filocorticata de Puytorac et al. 1992 (e.g. Spathidium)
      • Infrakingdom 4. Actinopoda Calkins 1902 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1997
        • Phylum 1. Heliozoa Haeckel 1886 stat. nov. Margulis 1974 (e.g. Actinophrys, Acanthocystis)
        • Phylum 2. Radiozoa Cavalier-Smith 1987.
          • Subphylum 1. Spasmaria Cavalier-Smith 1993 (Sticholonche, acantharians, e.g. Acanthometra')
          • Subphylum 2. Radiolaria Müller 1858 emend. stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993 (e.g. Thallassicolla, Aulacantha)
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
  • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Nees 1817 em.
  • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Cavalier-Smith (1999)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). Zooflagellate phylogeny and the systematics of Protozoa. Biological Bulletin, 393-396, [67].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1999)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1999). Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 46(4), 347-366, [68].

Kingdom Protozoa

Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

From Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. (appeared 2002, dated 2000). An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A: Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press; 2nd ed., vol. 1, vol. 2. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [69].

"protozoa" [p. iv]

Cavalier-Smith (2002)[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa, [70].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (2003)[edit]

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [71], [72].

Kingdom Protozoa (11 phyla)

Cavalier-Smith (2004)[edit]

From Only six kingdoms of life, [73].

Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)

Cavalier-Smith (2010)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [74].

Eukaryota

Taylor & Sanders (2010)[edit]

Taylor, W.D. & R.W. Sanders. 2010. Protozoa. pp. 43-96. In: Thorp, J.H. & Covich, A.P. (eds.) The Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. 3rd ed. Academic Press, [75].

"protozoa"

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [76].