Viridiplantae

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Main Page
Eukaryota

[Note: this page is about Viridiplantae (= Plantae sensu Copeland, 1938, 1956). For other uses of Plantae, see:

Name[edit]

Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith, 1981

Synonyms[edit]

  • Plantae Copeland, 1938, 1956
  • Euchlorophyta Whittaker, 1969
  • Chlorophyta sensu van den Hoek & Jahns, 1978
  • Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004
  • Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997
  • Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005

Classifications[edit]

Copeland (1938)[edit]

Copeland, H.F. (1938). The kingdoms of organisms. Quart. Rev. Biol. 13, 383-420. From Minelli (1993, p. 131), [1].

  • Monera
  • Protista
  • Plantae (green algae and land plants)
  • Animalia

Whittaker (1969)[edit]

Whittaker, R. H. (1969). New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Science 163 (3863): 150–160.

  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Rhodophycophyta
    • Subkingdom Phaeophycophyta
    • Subkingdom Euchlorophyta
      • Branch Chlorophycophyta
        • Phylum Chlorophyta
        • Phylum Charophyta
      • Branch Metaphyta
        • Phylum Bryophyta
        • Phylum Tracheophyta
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Animalia

van den Hoek & Jahns (1978)[edit]

van den Hoek, C. and Jahns, H.M. (1978). Algen. Einführung in die Phykologie. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, [2], [3], [4].

  • Chlorophyta
    • Chlorophytina
      • Chlorophyceae
      • Prasinophyceae
      • Charophyceae
    • Bryophytina
    • Tracheophytina

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [5].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta


Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia


Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
      • Phylum Chlorophyta
      • Phylum Bryophyta
      • Phylum Tracheophyta
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
      • Phylum Biliphyta
        • Class Rhodophyceae
        • Class Glaocophyceae
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [6].

Empire or Superkingdom Eukaryota

  • Kingdom Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
    • Subkingdom 1. Biliphyta Cavalier-Smith 1981 [probably paraphyletic]
      • Infrakingdom 1. Glaucophyta infraking. nov.
      • Infrakingdom 2. Rhodophyta infraking. nov.
    • Subkingdom 2. Viridaeplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981
      • Infrakingdom 1. Chlorophyta Cavalier-Smith 1993
      • Infrakingdom 2. Cormophyta Endlicher 1836 stat. nov.

Hausmann et al. (2003)[edit]

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [7].

References[edit]

  • Minelli, A. (1993). Biological Systematics. The State of the Art. Chapman & Hall, London. 387 pp