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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Rhizaria
Clade: Retaria
Phylum: Radiozoa
Classis: Acantharea
Ordines: Acanthonida – Arthracanthida – Chaunacanthida – Holacanthida – Symphyacanthida – Acantharea incertae sedis


Acantharea Levine et al., 1980 [?]


  • Acantharia Haeckel, 1881, emend. Mikrjukov, 2000 [sic!]
  • Acantharina Campbell, 1954



  • Bernstein, R., Kling, S.A., Boltovskoy, D. (1999). Acantharia. In: South Atlantic Zooplankton (D. Boltovskoy, ed.), Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 75-147, [1].
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. (2003). Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39: 338–348.
  • Decelle, J. About the Acantharia, [2].
  • Korsun, S. (2012). Acantharia, Phaeodaria, Taxopodida. Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Saint-Petersburg State University, [3].
  • Decelle J. et al. 2012. Molecular Phylogeny and Morphological Evolution of the Acantharia (Radiolaria) PDF
  • Protist classification at micro*scope (CC)
  • Acantharea in the World Register of Marine Species

Alternative classifications[edit]

Schewiakoff (1926)[edit]

Schewiakoff, W. (1926). Die Acantharien des Golfes von Neapel. Fauna Flora Golfes Neapel 37:1–755, [4].


Campbell (1954)[edit]

Campbell, A. S. Radiolaria. In: Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part D Protista 3 (Chiefly Radiolarians And Tintinnines), 1954, [5].


Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

In Classis Actinopodea
Subclass Acantharia

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Regnum Protista, Assemblage "Actinopods"
Phylum Acantharia Haeckel, 1876

Febvre in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Febvre, J., 1990. 20c. Phylum Actinopoda, Class Acantharia. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 363-379. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [6].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Regnum Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Phylum Radiozoa, Subphylum Spasmaria
Classis Acantharea Haeckel, 1881 stat. nov.

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Acantharea

Febvre-Chevalier, Febvre & Michaels, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Febvre-Chevalier, C., Febvre, J. & Michaels, A. 2000. Acantharia Haeckel, 1881. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 783-803, [7]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [8].

In “protozoa”, “amoeboid protists

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [9].

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925