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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Rhizaria
Phylum: Retaria
Subphylum: Radiozoa
Classis: Acantharea
Ordines: Arthracanthida - Chaunacanthida - Holacanthida - Symphyacanthida - Incertae sedis - Unassigned Genera




  • Acantharia Haeckel, 1881, emend. Mikrjukov, 2000 (sic!)


  • Protist classification at micro*scope (CC)
  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith: Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39: 338-348 (2003).

Alternative classifications[edit]

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

In Classis Actinopodea
Subclass Acantharia

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Regnum Protista, Assemblage "Actinopods"
Phylum Acantharia Haeckel, 1876

Febvre in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Febvre, J., 1990. 20c. Phylum Actinopoda, Class Acantharia. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 363-379. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [1].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Regnum Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Phylum Radiozoa, Subphylum Spasmaria
Classis Acantharea Haeckel, 1881 stat. nov.

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Acantharea

Febvre & Febvre, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Febvre, C., Febvre, J. & Michaels, A., 2000. Acantharia Haeckel, 1881. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 783-803, [2]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [3].

In “protozoa”, “amoeboid protists”