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Peridinea (cladus Chromalveolata)


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Bikonta
Cladi: Archaeplastida – Chromalveolata – Excavata – Rhizaria

Phyla(?) incertae sedis: Apusozoa – Heliozoa – Chromista – Telonemea

Note: List of cladi after Cavalier-Smith 2009: 28, Bikonts comprise three or four major groups, probably all clades: Apusozoa, probably the first diverging, Excavata, probably next diverging, Rhizaria, and corticates


Bikonta Cavalier-Smith, 1993

Similar groups[edit]

  • Biciliata Cavalier-Smith, 1993
  • Photokaryotes Cavalier-Smith, 1999
  • Diaphoretickes Adl et al., 2012 [It excludes Excavata.]
  • Diphoda Derelle et al., 2015
  • Corticata Lankester, 1877, emend. Cavalier-Smith, 2015


  • Cavalier-Smith T., 1993. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 phyla. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Am Soc Microbiol.
  • Adl, S.M. et al. 2005. The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52: 399–451. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF.
  • Burki, F., Shalchian-Tabrizi, K., Minge, M., Skjæveland, A., Nikolaev, S.I., Jakobsen, K.S. & Pawlowski, J. 2007. Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups. PLoS ONE 2 : e790. Ful article.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1999. Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 46(4), 347–366, Abstract.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2003. Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. European Journal of Protistology 39: 338–348
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009. Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 56: 26–33. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x Abstract.

Vernacular names[edit]

English: Bikont
français: Bicontes, bicontes, biciliés
日本語: バイコンタ
македонски: Двокамшични
Türkçe: Çift kamçılı bir atasal canlıdan türeyenler
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật hai lông roi
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Bikonta on Wikimedia Commons.