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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Alveolata
Phylum: Myzozoa
Subphylum: Dinozoa
Infraphylum: Dinoflagellata
Superclasses: DinokaryotaSyndina

Classes (overview): Dinophyceae – Noctilucea – Peridinea – Syndinea – Dinoflagellata incertae sedis

Classis (in synonymy): Pyrrophyta


Dinoflagellata Bütschli, 1885 [1880-1889]

Synonyms or similar groups


  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith and E. E. Chao, Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.), Europ. J. Protistol. 40, 185-212 (2004).
  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338-348 (2003).
  • Saldarriaga, J.F., Taylor, F.J.R. (2017). Dinoflagellata. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 1-54. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-32669-6_22-1


Vernacular names[edit]

English: Dinoflagellates
español: Dinoflagelados
eesti: Dinoflagellaadid, Vaguviburvetikad
français: Dinoflagellés
magyar: Páncélos ostorosok
Türkçe: Ateşrengi algler


Stein (1883)[edit]

Stein, F. von (1883). Der Organismus der Infusionsthiere, Abt. 3 (2). Engelmann, Leipzig, [1].

  • Infusionthiere
    • Peritrichen Infusionthiere (Peritricha)
    • Hypotrichen Infusionthiere (Hypotricha)
    • Heterotrichen Infusionthiere (Heterotricha)
    • Holotrichen Infusionthiere (Holotricha)
    • Flagellaten oder Geisselinfusorien
    • Arthrodelen Flagellaten
      • Prorocentrinen
      • Cladopyxiden
      • Peridiniden
      • Dinophysiden
      • Noctiluciden

Bütschli (1885 [1880-1889])[edit]

From Bütschli, O. (1880–1889). Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band: Protozoa. Abt. I, Sarkodina und Sporozoa, 1880-82 [2]. Abt. II, Mastigophora, 1883-87 [3]. Abt. III, Infusoria und System der Radiolaria, 1887-89 [4]. C.F. Winter, Leipzig.

Phylum Protozoa

Fritsch (1935)[edit]

Fritsch, F.E. The Structure and Reproduction of the Algae. Vol. I, Introduction, Chlorophyceae. Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Dinophyceae, Chloromonadineae, Euglenineae, Colourless Flagellata, 1935, [5]. From Sharma (1986), [6], [7].


Kudo (1954)[edit]

Protozoology, 4th ed., [8].

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Kingdom Protista
Assemblage "Dinoflagellates"

Taylor in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Taylor, F.J.R., 1990. 24. Phylum Dinoflagellata:. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 419-437. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [9].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [10].

Empire Eukaryota

Fensome et al. (1993)[edit]

Fensome, R.A., Taylor, F.J.R., Norris, G., Sarjeant, W.A.S., Wharton, D.I. & Williams, G.L. (1993). A classification of fossil and living dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Press Special Paper, no.7, 351 p. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2016), [11].

Division Dinoflagellata Bütschli (1885)

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [12].

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
    • Subkingdom 2. Neozoa Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. 1997 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
      • Infrakingdom 3. Alveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em.
        • Superphylum 1. Miozoa Cavalier-Smith 1987.
          • Phylum 1. Dinozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.
            • Subphylum 1. Protalveolata Cavalier-Smith 1991 em. (e.g. Colponema, Ellobiopsis, Spironema, Hemimastix, Colpodella, Perkinsus) [probably paraphyletic]
            • Subphylum 2. Dinoflagellata Bütschli 1885 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1991 (e.g. Noctiluca, Crypthecodinium, Amphidinium)

Dodge & Lee, in Lee et al. 2000[edit]

Dodge, J.D. & Lee, J.J. 2000. Phylum Dinoflagellata. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 656-689, [13]. See Brands, S.J., 1989-2015, [14].

In “protozoa”, “alveolates

Okolodkov in Pugachev (2011)[edit]

Okolodkov, Y. B. [Околодков Ю. Б.]. Dinoflagellata. In: Pugachev, O. N. ed. [О.Н. Пугачев]. 2011. Protista 3: Guide-book on zoology. [Протисты 3: руководство по зоологии]. St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, 474 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [15], [16].


Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S. M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [17].


Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [18].