Eukaryota

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Eukaryota
Eukaryota

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnums (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista
Regnums (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Chromista - Protozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): Bikonta - Unikonta
Groups (Adl et al., 2012): Amoebozoa - Opisthokonta - Excavata - Sar (Stramenopiles - Alveolata - Rhizaria) - Archaeplastida

To place: Picozoa

Name

eucaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938, Chadefaud, 1960

Synonyms

  • Karyonta Novák, 1930
  • Eukaryonta Fott, 1959 (according to Round, 1973), Möhn, 1984
  • Eucaryota Christensen, 1962, Allsopp, 1969
  • Eucaryotae Murray, 1968
  • Caryonta Novák, 1969
  • Eukaryota Fott, 1971, Stent, 1971, Margulis, 1974, Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
  • Eucytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Eukaryotae Parker et al., 1982 [?]
  • Eucarya Woese et. al., 1990
  • Eukarya Margulis, 1996 (not Dougherty, 1957, see Katscher, 2004 and Sapp, 2005)

Alternative classifications

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [1]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [2], [3].

Monde vivant

Jeffrey (1971)

Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands, [4].

  • Superkingdom Acytota
  • Superkingdom Procytota
  • Superkingdom Eucytota
    • Kingdom Rhodobiota
    • Kingdom Chromobiota
    • Kingdom Zoobiota
    • Kingdom Mycobiota
    • Kingdom Chlorobiota

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)

From Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms.

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [5].


Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]


Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia


Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
      • Phylum Chlorophyta
      • Phylum Bryophyta
      • Phylum Tracheophyta
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
      • Phylum Biliphyta
        • Class Rhodophyceae
        • Class Glaocophyceae
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [6], [7]. See Brands (1989-2005), [8]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [9].]

Möhn (1984)

From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [10].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Corliss (1984)

From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.

Superkingdom Eukaryota

Corliss (1994)

From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

Margulis (1996)

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [11].

Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)

Hausmann et al. (1996)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [12]

Empire Eukaryota


Cavalier-Smith (1998)

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [13].

Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
  • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Nees 1817 em.
  • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Patterson (1999)

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes, [14].

Hausmann et al. (2003)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith (2003)

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [15].


Eukaryota

Adl et al. (2005)

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [16].

Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (2009)

From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.

Eukaryota

[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]

Adl et al. (2012)

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [17].

Eukaryota

References

  • Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 52: 399-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF
  • Allsopp, A. 1969. Phylogenetic relationships of the Procaryota and the origin of the eucaryotic cell. New Phytol. 68:591-612.
  • Baldauf, S.L. 2003: The deep roots of eukaryotes. Science, 300: 1703–1706.
  • Baldauf, S.L., Roger, A.J., Wenk-Siefert, I., & Doolittle, W.F. (2000). A kingdom-level phylogeny of eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290: 972-977.
  • Becerra, A., Delaye, L., Islas, S., & Lazcano, A. (2007). The very early stages of biological evolution and the nature of the last common ancestor of the three major cell domains. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 361-379.
  • Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Minge, M.; Skjæveland, A.; Nikolaev, S.I.; Jakobsen, K.S.; Pawlowski, J. 2007: Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups. PLoS ONE, 2: e790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000790
  • Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Pawlowski, J. 2008: Phylogenomics reveals a new 'megagroup' including most photosynthetic eukaryotes. Biology letters, 4: 366-369. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0224 PDF
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1981: Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine? Biosystems, 14: 461-481.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009: Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 26-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x
  • Chatton, É. (1925). Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5-84.
  • Chatton, É. (1937/1938). Titre et travaux scientifique (1906-1937) de Edouard Chatton. Sette, Sottano, Italy.
  • Christensen, T. (1962). Alger. In: T.W. Böcher, M. Lange, and T. Sørensen (eds.). Botanik. Bind II. Systematisk botanik. Nr. 2, 1–178. I Kommission hos Munksgaard, Copenhagen, [18].
  • Fott, B. (1959). Algenkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 482 p. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. Academia Praha, 1956, [19].
  • Fott, B. (1971). Algenkunde. 2nd ed. VEB Fischer, Jena, 581 pp., [20]. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. 2nd ed., Academia Praha, 515 p., 1967, [21].
  • Goloboff, P.A.; Catalano, S.A.; Mirande, J.M.; Szumik, C.A.; Arias, J.S.; Källersjö, M.; Farris, J.S. 2009: Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups. Cladistics, 25: 211-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x
  • Jeffrey, C. (1971). Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [22].
  • Katscher, F. (2004). The history of the terms Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Protist, 155(2), 257-263, [23].
  • Keeling, P.J.; Burger, G.; Durnford, D.G.; Lang, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; Pearlman, R.E.; Roger, A.J.; Gray, M.W. 2005: The tree of eukaryotes. Trends in ecology and evolution, 20: 670–676. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.09.005 PDF
  • Margulis, L. (1974a). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [24].
  • Margulis, L. (1974b). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78.
  • Margulis, L. (1996). Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. PNAS, 93(3), 1071-1076, [25].
  • Minge, M.A.; Silberman, J.D.; Orr, R.J.S.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Burki, F.; Skjæveland, A.; Jakobsen, K.S. 2009: Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B), 276: 597-604. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1358
  • Möhn, E. 1984: System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen. I. Physikalische, chemische und biologische Evolution. Prokaryonta. Eukaryonta. (bis Ctenophora). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  • Murray, R. G. E. 1968. Microbial structure as an aid to microbial classification and taxonomy. SPISY (Faculté des Sciences de l'Université J. E. Purkyne Brno) 34: 249-252.
  • Novák, F. A. (1930). Systematická botanika. Praha.
  • Novák, V. J. A. (1969) Historický vývoj organismů. Praha, [26].
  • Moreira, D., von der Heyden, S., Bass, D., López-García, P., Chao, E., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2007). Global eukaryote phylogeny: combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 255-266.
  • Parfrey, L.W.; Barbero, E.; Lasser, E.; Dunthorn, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Patterson, D.J.; Katz, L.A. 2006: Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity. PLoS Genetics, 2(12): e220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220
  • Roger, A.J.; Simpson, A.G.B. 2009: Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree. Current biology, 19: R165-R167. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032
  • Round, F. E. (1973). The Biology of the Algae. 2nd ed., Edward Arnold, London.
  • Sapp, J. (2005). The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy: meanings and mythology. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, 69(2), 292-305, [27].
  • Simpson, A.G.B.; Lang, B.F.; Dacks, J.B.; Leigh, J.W.; Hug, L.; Roger, A.J.; Hampl, V. 2009: Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups". PNAS, 106: 3859-3864.
  • Steenkamp, E. T., Wright, J., & Baldauf, S. L. (2006). The protistan origins of animals and fungi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93-106.
  • Stent, G. (1971). Molecular genetics. An introductory narrative. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, Ca.
  • Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. 1978: Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.
  • Woese, C., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (12): 4576-4579.
  • Yoon, H.S.; Grant, J.; Tekle, Y.I.; Wu, M.; Chaon, B.C.; Cole, J.C.; Logsdon, J.M., jr.; Patterson, D.J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Katz, L.A. 2008: Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes. BMC evolutionary biology, 8:14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-14 PDF

Links

Vernacular names

Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقية النوى
বাংলা: সকেন্দ্রক অধিজগত
Boarisch: Eikaryóten, Eikaryótner
bosanski: Eukarioti
български: Еукариоти
català: Eucariota
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten, Eukaryonten
eesti: Eukarüoodid
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: eukaryotes
español: Eucariontes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
فارسی: هسته داران
français: Eucaryotes
Gaeilge: Eocaróit
ગુજરાતી: સકેન્દ્રક અધિજગત
한국어: 진핵생물
Հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
हिन्दी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
hrvatski: Eukarioti
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
עברית: איקריוטיים
Latina: Eucaryota
latviešu: Eikariots
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
magyar: Eukarióták
македонски: Еукариоти
मराठी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
नेपाली: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
norsk bokmål: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਕੇਂਦਰਕ ਅਧਿਜਗਤ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
polski: Jądrowce
português: Eucariota
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
română: Eucariote
русский: Эукариоты
shqip: Eukariotët
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
suomi: Aitotumaiset
svenska: Eukaryoter
தமிழ்: மெய்க்கருவுயிரி
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar
українська: Еукаріоти
中文: 真核域
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