Eukaryota

From Wikispecies
Jump to: navigation, search
Eukaryota
Eukaryota

Taxonavigation

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnums (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista
Regnums (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Chromista - Protozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): Bikonta - Unikonta
Groups (Adl et al., 2012): Amoebozoa - Opisthokonta - Excavata - Sar (Stramenopiles - Alveolata - Rhizaria) - Archaeplastida - Incertae sedis

Name

Eucaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938, Chadefaud, 1960

Synonyms

  • Karyonta Novák, 1930
  • Eukaryonta Fott, 1959 (according to Round, 1973), Möhn, 1984
  • Eucaryota Christensen, 1962, Allsopp, 1969
  • Eucaryotae Murray, 1968
  • Caryonta Novák, 1969
  • Eukaryota Fott, 1971, Stent, 1971, Margulis, 1974, Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
  • Eucytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Eukaryotae Parker et al., 1982 [?]
  • Eucarya Woese et. al., 1990
  • Eukarya Margulis, 1996 (not Dougherty, 1957, see Sapp, 2005)

Alternative classifications

Chatton (1925)

Chatton, É. (1925). Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5-84, [1]. See Kussakin & Drozdov (1994), [2], Katscher (2004), [3].

[p. 76ː]

[p. 77ː]

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [4]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [5], [6].

Monde vivant

Jeffrey (1971)

Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands, [7].

  • Superkingdom Acytota
  • Superkingdom Procytota
  • Superkingdom Eucytota
    • Kingdom Rhodobiota
    • Kingdom Chromobiota
    • Kingdom Zoobiota
    • Kingdom Mycobiota
    • Kingdom Chlorobiota

Margulis (1971)

Margulis, L. 1971. Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis. Evolution 25:242-245.

Leedale (1974)

Leedale, G. F. (1974). How many are the kingdoms of organisms? Taxon, 23 (1974), pp. 261–270, [8]. See Whittaker in Kreir (1977), [9]

[“Pteropod” scheme, p. 267:]

[“Fan” scheme, p. 269:]

Margulis (1974a)

Margulis, L. (1974a). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78, [10].

Margulis (1974b)

Margulis, L. (1974b). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [11].

Edwards (1976)

Edwards, P. (1976). A classification of plants into higher taxa based on cytological and biochemical criteria. Taxon 25: 529-542.

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

Cavalier-Smith (1978)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1978). The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems, 10(1), 93-114.

Stewart & Mattox (1980)

Stewart, K.D. & Mattox, K. (1980). Phylogeny of phytoflagellates. In: Phytoflagellates (ed. E.Cox), New York: Elsevier/North Holland, pp. 433–462, [12].

Eukaryotes

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [13].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
      • Phylum Chlorophyta
      • Phylum Bryophyta
      • Phylum Tracheophyta
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
      • Phylum Biliphyta
        • Class Rhodophyceae
        • Class Glaocophyceae
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [14], [15]. See Brands (1989-2005), [16]

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [17].]

Cavalier-Smith (1983)

Cavelier-Smith, T. 1983. A 6-kingdom classification and a unified phylogeny. Pp. 1027–1034 in Endocytobiology II (H.E.A. Schenk and W. Schwemmler, eds.). De Gruyter, Berlin, [18], [19].

Möhn (1984)

From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [20], [21].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Lipscomb (1985)

Lipscomb, Diana. 1985. The eukaryotic kingdoms. Cladistics 1: 127-40.

Eukaryotes

[Note: some eukaryote groups are not included in Lipscomb analysis.]

Corliss (1986)

From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.

Superkingdom Eukaryota

Starobogatoff (1986)

Старобогатов Я.И. К вопросу о числе царств эукариотных организмов. // Труды Зоологического института АН СССР. 1986. T. 144. С. 4-25.

Starobogatoff, Y.I. 1986. On the number of kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 144: 4-25 (in Russian). From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [22].

Eukaryota

Lipscomb (1989)

Lipscomb, D. (1989). Relationships among the eukaryotes. In: The Hiearchy of Life, B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, & H. Jornvall (eds.), Elsevier, New York. pp. 161-178, [23]. From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [24].

Eukaryotes

  • Rhodophyca
  • Supergroup 1
    • Plantae
    • Supergroup 2
      • Cryptomonada
      • Supergroup 3
        • Amebae+Oomycota+Chromobiota+Heliozoa
        • Supergroup 4
          • Polymastigota
          • Animalia+(Choanozoa+Fungi)
          • Opalinida+Dinociliata+Euglenaria

Lipscomb (1991)

Lipscomb, D. (1991). Broad classification: the kingdoms and the protozoa. In: Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. J.P. Kreier & J.R. Baker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 81-136, [25].

Eukaryotes

Corliss (1994)

From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

Kussakin & Drozdov (1994)

Кусакин О.Г, Дроздов А.Л. 1994. Филема органического мира. Часть 1. Пролегомены к построению филемы. С.-Петербург: Наука, [26].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1994). Phylema of the living beings. Part 1. Prolegomena to the construction of phylema. Nauka, St.-Petersburg (in Russian).

Cavalier-Smith (1995)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1995). Zooflagellate phylogeny and classification. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology [Tsitologiia], 37 (11): 1010-1029, [27].

Eukaryota

Starobogatov (1995)

Starobogatov, Y. I. (1995). The position of flagellated protists in the system of lower eukaryotes. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology, 37 (11): 1030-7, [28]. Also in: Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Free-living Heterotrophic Flagellates: 14th – 20th August 1994 – St. Petersburg, Russia. Europ. J. Protistol. 31, 109-118, [29].

Eukaryota

Margulis (1996)

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [30].

Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)

Hausmann & Hülsmann (1996)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. 2nd ed. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [31]

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1998)

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [32].

  • Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota
  • Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
    • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
    • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Nees 1817 em.
    • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
    • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Kussakin & Drozdov (1998)

КусакинО Г., ДроздовА. Л. 1998. Филема органического мира. Часть 2. Прокариоты и низшие эукариоты. С.-Петербург: Наука, [33].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1998). Phylema of the living beings. Part 2. Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes. Nauka, St.-Petersburg (in Russian).

Patterson (1999)

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes, [34].

Hausmann et al. (2003)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. 3rd ed. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith (2003)

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [35].

Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (2004)

From Only six kingdoms of life, [36].

Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)

Adl et al. (2005)

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [37].

Eukaryota

Lecointre & Le Guyader (2006)

Lecointre, G. & Le Guyader, H. Classification phylogénétique du vivant, 3e éd., Belin, Paris, 2006, [38].

Le vivant

Cavalier-Smith (2009)

From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.

Eukaryota

[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]

Cavalier-Smith (2010)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [39].

Eukaryota

Adl et al. (2012)

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [40].

Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (2013)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2013). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa Eur. J. Protistol., 49, pp. 115–178, [41].

Brown et al. (2013)

Brown, M.W., Sharpe, S.C., Silberman, J.D., Heiss, A.A., Lang, B.F., Simpson, A.G.B., Roger, A.J. (2013). Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads. Proc Biol Sci 280(1769):20131755, [42].

Eukaryota

Pawlowski (2013)

Pawlowski, J. (2013). The new micro-kingdoms of eukaryotes. BMC Biol 11:40, [43].

Eukaryotes

Boudouresque (2015)

Boudouresque, C. F. (2015). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Unicellular Eukaryotes. In: Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 191-257). Springer: Netherlands, [44].

Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes [alternative classification]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [45].

Derelle et al. (2015)

Derelle, R., Torruella, G., Klimeš, V., Brinkmann, H., Kim, E., Vlček, Č., Lang, B.F. & Eliáš, M. (2015). Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. PNAS, 201420657, [46].

Eukaryota

Speijer et al. (2015)

Speijer, D., Lukeš, J., & Eliáš, M. (2015). Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life. PNAS, 112(29), 8827-8834, [47]

Eukaryotes

References

  • Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 52: 399-451. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF
  • Allsopp, A. 1969. Phylogenetic relationships of the Procaryota and the origin of the eucaryotic cell. New Phytol. 68:591-612.
  • Baldauf, S.L. 2003: The deep roots of eukaryotes. Science, 300: 1703–1706.
  • Baldauf, S.L., Roger, A.J., Wenk-Siefert, I., & Doolittle, W.F. (2000). A kingdom-level phylogeny of eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290: 972-977.
  • Becerra, A., Delaye, L., Islas, S., & Lazcano, A. (2007). The very early stages of biological evolution and the nature of the last common ancestor of the three major cell domains. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 38: 361-379.
  • Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Minge, M.; Skjæveland, A.; Nikolaev, S.I.; Jakobsen, K.S.; Pawlowski, J. 2007: Phylogenomics reshuffles the eukaryotic supergroups. PLoS ONE, 2: e790. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000790
  • Burki, F.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Pawlowski, J. 2008: Phylogenomics reveals a new 'megagroup' including most photosynthetic eukaryotes. Biology letters, 4: 366-369. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2008.0224 PDF
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1981: Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine? Biosystems, 14: 461-481.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009: Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 26-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x
  • Chatton, É. (1925). Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5-84.
  • Chatton, É. (1937/1938). Titre et travaux scientifique (1906-1937) de Edouard Chatton. Sette, Sottano, Italy.
  • Christensen, T. (1962). Alger. In: T.W. Böcher, M. Lange, and T. Sørensen (eds.). Botanik. Bind II. Systematisk botanik. Nr. 2, 1–178. I Kommission hos Munksgaard, Copenhagen, [48].
  • Fott, B. (1959). Algenkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 482 p. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. Academia Praha, 1956, [49].
  • Fott, B. (1971). Algenkunde. 2nd ed. VEB Fischer, Jena, 581 pp., [50]. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. 2nd ed., Academia Praha, 515 p., 1967, [51].
  • Goloboff, P.A.; Catalano, S.A.; Mirande, J.M.; Szumik, C.A.; Arias, J.S.; Källersjö, M.; Farris, J.S. 2009: Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups. Cladistics, 25: 211-230. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x
  • Jeffrey, C. (1971). Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [52].
  • Katscher, F. (2004). The history of the terms Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Protist, 155(2), 257-263, [53].
  • Keeling, P.J.; Burger, G.; Durnford, D.G.; Lang, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; Pearlman, R.E.; Roger, A.J.; Gray, M.W. 2005: The tree of eukaryotes. Trends in ecology and evolution, 20: 670–676. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2005.09.005 PDF
  • Margulis, L. (1996). Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. PNAS, 93(3), 1071-1076, [54].
  • Minge, M.A.; Silberman, J.D.; Orr, R.J.S.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Burki, F.; Skjæveland, A.; Jakobsen, K.S. 2009: Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B), 276: 597-604. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1358
  • Möhn, E. 1984: System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen. I. Physikalische, chemische und biologische Evolution. Prokaryonta. Eukaryonta. (bis Ctenophora). Stuttgart: E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.
  • Murray, R. G. E. 1968. Microbial structure as an aid to microbial classification and taxonomy. SPISY (Faculté des Sciences de l'Université J. E. Purkyne Brno) 34: 249-252.
  • Novák, F. A. (1930). Systematická botanika. Praha.
  • Novák, V. J. A. (1969) Historický vývoj organismů. Praha, [55].
  • Moreira, D., von der Heyden, S., Bass, D., López-García, P., Chao, E., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2007). Global eukaryote phylogeny: combined small- and large-subunit ribosomal DNA trees support monophyly of Rhizaria, Retaria and Excavata. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44: 255-266.
  • Parfrey, L.W.; Barbero, E.; Lasser, E.; Dunthorn, M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Patterson, D.J.; Katz, L.A. 2006: Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity. PLoS Genetics, 2(12): e220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220
  • Roger, A.J.; Simpson, A.G.B. 2009: Evolution: revisiting the root of the eukaryote tree. Current biology, 19: R165-R167. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.032
  • Round, F. E. (1973). The Biology of the Algae. 2nd ed., Edward Arnold, London.
  • Sapp, J. (2005). The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy: meanings and mythology. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, 69(2), 292-305, [56].
  • Simpson, A.G.B.; Lang, B.F.; Dacks, J.B.; Leigh, J.W.; Hug, L.; Roger, A.J.; Hampl, V. 2009: Phylogenomic analyses support the monophyly of Excavata and resolve relationships among eukaryotic "supergroups". PNAS, 106: 3859-3864.
  • Steenkamp, E. T., Wright, J., & Baldauf, S. L. (2006). The protistan origins of animals and fungi. Molecular Biology and Evolution 23 (1): 93-106.
  • Stent, G. (1971). Molecular genetics. An introductory narrative. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, Ca.
  • Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. 1978: Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.
  • Woese, C., Kandler, O., & Wheelis, M. (1990). Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (12): 4576-4579.
  • Yoon, H.S.; Grant, J.; Tekle, Y.I.; Wu, M.; Chaon, B.C.; Cole, J.C.; Logsdon, J.M., jr.; Patterson, D.J.; Bhattacharya, D.; Katz, L.A. 2008: Broadly sampled multigene trees of eukaryotes. BMC evolutionary biology, 8:14. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-14 PDF

Links

Vernacular names

Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقية النوى
বাংলা: সকেন্দ্রক অধিজগত
Boarisch: Eikaryóten, Eikaryótner
bosanski: Eukarioti
български: Еукариоти
català: Eucariota
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten, Eukaryonten
eesti: Eukarüoodid
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: eukaryotes
español: Eucariontes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
فارسی: هسته داران
français: Eucaryotes
Gaeilge: Eocaróit
ગુજરાતી: સકેન્દ્રક અધિજગત
한국어: 진핵생물
Հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
हिन्दी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
hrvatski: Eukarioti
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
עברית: איקריוטיים
Latina: Eucaryota
latviešu: Eikariots
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
magyar: Eukarióták
македонски: Еукариоти
मराठी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
नेपाली: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
norsk bokmål: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਕੇਂਦਰਕ ਅਧਿਜਗਤ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
polski: Jądrowce
português: Eucariota
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
română: Eucariote
русский: Эукариоты
shqip: Eukariotët
සිංහල: සූන්‍යෂ්ටිකයන් (යුකැරියා)
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
suomi: Aitotumaiset
svenska: Eukaryoter
தமிழ்: மெய்க்கருவுயிரி
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar
українська: Еукаріоти
中文: 真核域
For more multimedia, look at Eukaryota on Wikimedia Commons.