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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnums (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Protista
Regnums (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): Animalia - Plantae - Fungi - Chromista - Protozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): Bikonta - Unikonta
Groups (Adl et al., 2012): Amoebozoa - Opisthokonta - Excavata - Sar (Stramenopiles - Alveolata - Rhizaria) - Archaeplastida

To place: Picozoa


Eucaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938, Chadefaud, 1960


  • Karyonta Novák, 1930
  • Eukaryonta Fott, 1959 (according to Round, 1973), Möhn, 1984
  • Eucaryota Christensen, 1962, Allsopp, 1969
  • Eucaryotae Murray, 1968
  • Caryonta Novák, 1969
  • Eukaryota Fott, 1971, Stent, 1971, Margulis, 1974, Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
  • Eucytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Eukaryotae Parker et al., 1982 [?]
  • Eucarya Woese et. al., 1990
  • Eukarya Margulis, 1996 (not Dougherty, 1957, see Sapp, 2005)

Alternative classifications

Chatton (1925)

Chatton, É. (1925). Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5-84, [1]. See Kussakin & Drozdov (1994), [2], Katscher (2004), [3].

[p. 76ː]

[p. 77ː]

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [4]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [5], [6].

Monde vivant

Jeffrey (1971)

Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands, [7].

  • Superkingdom Acytota
  • Superkingdom Procytota
  • Superkingdom Eucytota
    • Kingdom Rhodobiota
    • Kingdom Chromobiota
    • Kingdom Zoobiota
    • Kingdom Mycobiota
    • Kingdom Chlorobiota

Margulis (1971)

Margulis, L. 1971. Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis. Evolution 25:242-245.

Leedale (1974)

Leedale, G. F. (1974). How many are the kingdoms of organisms? Taxon, 23 (1974), pp. 261–270, [8]. See Whittaker in Kreir (1977), [9]

[“Pteropod” scheme, p. 267:]

[“Fan” scheme, p. 269:]

Margulis (1974a)

Margulis, L. (1974a). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78, [10].

Margulis (1974b)

Margulis, L. (1974b). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [11].

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

Cavalier-Smith (1978)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1978). The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems, 10(1), 93-114.

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [12].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
      • Phylum Chlorophyta
      • Phylum Bryophyta
      • Phylum Tracheophyta
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
      • Phylum Biliphyta
        • Class Rhodophyceae
        • Class Glaocophyceae
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [13], [14]. See Brands (1989-2005), [15]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [16].]

Möhn (1984)

From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [17].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Corliss (1984)

From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.

Superkingdom Eukaryota

Corliss (1994)

From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

Kussakin & Drozdov (1994)

Кусакин О.Г, Дроздов А.Л. 1994. Филема органического мира. Часть 1. Пролегомены к построению филемы. С.-Петербург: Наука, [18].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1994). Phylema of the living beings. Part 1. Prolegomena to the construction of phylema. Nauka, St.-Petersburg (in Russian).

Margulis (1996)

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [19].

Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)

Hausmann et al. (1996)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [20]

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1998)

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [21].

Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (unnecessary synonym Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
  • Kingdom 3. Fungi Linnaeus 1753 stat. nov. Nees 1817 em.
  • Kingdom 4. Plantae Haeckel 1866 em. Cavalier-Smith 1981
  • Kingdom 5. Chromista Cavalier-Smith 1981 em.

Kussakin & Drozdov (1998)

КусакинО Г., ДроздовА. Л. 1998. Филема органического мира. Часть 2. Прокариоты и низшие эукариоты. С.-Петербург: Наука, [22].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1998). Phylema of the living beings. Part 2. Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes. Nauka, St.-Petersburg (in Russian).

Patterson (1999)

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes, [23].

Hausmann et al. (2003)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith (2003)

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [24].


Cavalier-Smith (2004)

From Only six kingdoms of life, [25].

Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)

Adl et al. (2005)

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [26].


Lecointre & Le Guyader (2006)

Lecointre, G. & Le Guyader, H. Classification phylogénétique du vivant, 3e éd., Belin, Paris, 2006, [27].

Le vivant

Cavalier-Smith (2009)

From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.


[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]

Cavalier-Smith (2010)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [28].


Adl et al. (2012)

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [29].


Cavalier-Smith (2013)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2013). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa Eur. J. Protistol., 49, pp. 115–178, [30].

Boudouresque (2015)

Boudouresque, C. F. (2015). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Unicellular Eukaryotes. In: Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 191-257). Springer: Netherlands, [31].


Eukaryotes [alternative classification]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [32].


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Vernacular names

Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقية النوى
বাংলা: সকেন্দ্রক অধিজগত
Boarisch: Eikaryóten, Eikaryótner
bosanski: Eukarioti
български: Еукариоти
català: Eucariota
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten, Eukaryonten
eesti: Eukarüoodid
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: eukaryotes
español: Eucariontes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
فارسی: هسته داران
français: Eucaryotes
Gaeilge: Eocaróit
ગુજરાતી: સકેન્દ્રક અધિજગત
한국어: 진핵생물
Հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
हिन्दी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
hrvatski: Eukarioti
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
עברית: איקריוטיים
Latina: Eucaryota
latviešu: Eikariots
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
magyar: Eukarióták
македонски: Еукариоти
मराठी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
नेपाली: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
norsk bokmål: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਕੇਂਦਰਕ ਅਧਿਜਗਤ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
polski: Jądrowce
português: Eucariota
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
română: Eucariote
русский: Эукариоты
shqip: Eukariotët
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
suomi: Aitotumaiset
svenska: Eukaryoter
தமிழ்: மெய்க்கருவுயிரி
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar
українська: Еукаріоти
中文: 真核域
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