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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Rhizaria
Phylum: Cercozoa
Subphylum: Filosa
Superclassis: Monadofilosa
Classes: Metromonadea – Sarcomonadea – ?Thecofilosea



Monadofilosa Cavalier-Smith, 1997


  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith and Ema E.-Y. Chao, Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa), Protist 154, 341-358 (2003).
  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338-348 (2003).

Alternative classifications


Cavalier-Smith (1996/97)


From Amoeboflagellates and mitochondrial cristae in eukaryote evolution: megasystematics of the new protozoan subkingdoms eozoa and neozoa, [1].

Phylum Rhizopoda Dujardin 1835 stat. nov. Haeckel 1866 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1996

  • Subphylum 1. Phytomyxa subphy. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1996
  • Subphylum 2. Reticulofilosa subphy. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1996
  • Subphylum 3. Monadofilosa subphy. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1996
    • Class 1. Sarcomonadea Cavalier-Smith 1993 stat. nov. 1995 emend. a)
    • Class 2. Filosea Leidy 1879 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1993

Cavalier-Smith (1998)


From A revised six-kingdom system of life.

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier Smith (2000)


Cavalier-Smith, T. (2000). Flagellate megaevolution: the basis for eukaryote diversification. In: Leadbeater, B.S.C., Green, J.C. (eds.). The Flagellates. Unity, diversity and evolution. London: Taylor and Francis, pp. 361-390.

“Classification of the flagellate-containing kingdoms: Protozoa, Plantae and Chromista:”

Kingdom 1 Protozoa [**] Owen 1858 [75 orders]

Cavalier-Smith (2002)


From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa

In Phylum Cercozoa
Subphylum Monadofilosa

Cavalier-Smith & Chao (2003)


From Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa (Protozoa), [2], [3].

Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith 1998

Cavalier-Smith & Oates (2012)


Cavalier-Smith, T., & Oates, B. (2012). Ultrastructure of Allapsa vibrans and the body plan of Glissomonadida (Cercozoa). Protist, 163(2), 165-187.

Phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998;

[Notes: *Taxa containing only gliding zooflagellates;

For brevity the second superclass within Monadofilosa (i.e. Ventrifilosa comprising Imbricatea and Thecofilosea: Cavalier-Smith and Karpov 2011) is not shown here.]

Scoble & Cavalier-Smith (2014)


Scoble, J. M., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2014). Scale evolution, sequence phylogeny, and taxonomy of thaumatomonad Cercozoa: 11 new species and new genera Scutellomonas, Cowlomonas, Thaumatospina and Ovaloplaca. European Journal of Protistology, 50(3), 270-313, [4].

Phylum Cercozoa

Ruggiero et al. (2015)


Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [5].

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Monadofilosa on Wikimedia Commons.