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Various animals


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Phyla (36): Acanthocephala - Annelida - Arthropoda - Brachiopoda - Bryozoa - Cephalorhyncha - Chaetognatha - Chordata - Cnidaria - Ctenophora - Cycliophora - Echinodermata - Echiura - Gastrotricha - Gnathostomulida - Hemichordata - Kamptozoa - Kinorhyncha - Loricifera - Micrognathozoa - Mollusca - Myxozoa - Nematoda - Nematomorpha - Nemertea - Onychophora - Orthonectida - Phoronida - Placozoa - Platyhelminthes - Porifera - Rhombozoa - Rotifera - Sipuncula - Tardigrada - Xenacoelomorpha

Source(s) of checklist:
Catalogue of Life: 2014 Annual Checklist is followed for pragmatic reasons, though the following alternative phyla deserve consideration: Dicyemida - Entoprocta - Monoblastozoa - Myzostomida - Priapulida - †Trilobozoa]


Animalia Linnaeus, 1758 emend.



Main page: Animalia (classifications).



animal biodiversity publishing

  • Blagoderov, V. et al. 2010: Streamlining taxonomic publication: a working example with Scratchpads and ZooKeys. ZooKeys, 50: 17-28. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.539
  • Penev, L. et al. 2010: Editorial. Taxonomy shifts up a gear: New publishing tools to accelerate biodiversity research. ZooKeys, 50: i-iv. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.543
  • Penev, L. et al. 2010: Semantic tagging of and semantic enhancements to systematics papers: ZooKeys working examples. ZooKeys, 50: 1-16. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.50.538
  • Penev, L. et al. 2011: Interlinking journal and wiki publications through joint citation: Working examples from ZooKeys and Plazi on Species-ID. ZooKeys, 90: 1–12. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.90.1369
  • Smith, V.; Penev, L. (eds.) 2011: e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys, 150 contents
  • Valdecasas, A.G. 2011: An index to evaluate the quality of taxonomic publications. Zootaxa, 2925: 57–62. Preview PDF
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Describing unexplored biodiversity: Zootaxa in the International Year of Biodiversity. Zootaxa, 2768: 1–4. Preview PDF
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Accelerating biodiversity descriptions and transforming taxonomic publishing: the first decade of Zootaxa. Zootaxa, 2896: 1–7. Preview PDF

methodology in zoological taxonomy

  • Assis, L.C.S.; De Carvalho, M.R.; Wheeler, Q.D. 2011: Homoplasy: from detecting pattern to determining process in evolution, but with a secondary role for morphology? Zootaxa, 2984: 67–68. Preview
  • Brown, B.V. 2013. Automating the "Material examined" section of taxonomic papers to speed up species descriptions. Zootaxa 3683(3): 297–299. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3683.3.8 reference page 
  • Chakrabarty, P. 2010: Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular phylogenetics and taxonomy. Zootaxa, 2632: 67-68. Preview PDF
  • Coleman, C.O.; Lowry, J.K.; Macfarlane, T. 2010: DELTA for beginners. An introduction into the taxonomy software package DELTA. ZooKeys, 45: 1-75. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.45.263
  • Cruickshank, R.H.; Munck, L. 2011: It’s barcoding Jim, but not as we know it. Zootaxa, 2933: 55–56. Preview PDF
  • Ebach, M.C. 2011: Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise. Zootaxa, 2742: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Faith, D.P. et al. 2012: Corroboration assessments and recent progress towards integrative systematics: a reply to Farris and Carpenter. Zootaxa, 3235: 65-68. Preview
  • Farris, J.S.; Carpenter, J.M. 2012: Faith et al.'s (2011) "corroboration assessment" leads to verificationism. Zootaxa, 3235: 62-64. Preview
  • Maddison, D.R.; Schulz, K.-S.; Maddison, W.P. 2007: The Tree of Life Web Project. Pp. 19-40 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Minelli, A. 2007: Invertebrate taxonomy and evolutionary developmental biology. Pp. 55-60 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Mitchell, A. 2011: DNA barcoding is useful for taxonomy: a reply to Ebach. Zootaxa, 2772: 67–68. Preview PDF
  • Rodman, J.E. 2007: Reflections on PEET, the Partnerships for Enhancing Expertise in Taxonomy. Pp. 41-46 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Rodríguez-Fernández, J.I. et al. 2011: Barcoding without DNA? Species identification using near infrared spectroscopy. Zootaxa, 2933: 46–54. Preview
  • Rogers, D.C. 2012: Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method. Zootaxa, 3257: 66–68. Preview
  • Santos, L.M.; Faria, L.R.R. 2011: The taxonomy’s new clothes: a little more about the DNA-based taxonomy. Zootaxa, 3025: 66–68. Preview PDF
  • Stevens, M.I.; Porco, D.; D’Haese, C.A.; Deharveng, L. 2011: Comment on "Taxonomy and the DNA Barcoding Enterprise" by Ebach (2011). Zootaxa, 2838: 85–88. Preview PDF
  • Stribling, J. et al. 2012: “Taxonomic certification versus the scientific method”: a rebuttal of Rogers (2012). Zootaxa 3359: 65–68. Preview PDF [erratum in Zootaxa 3383: 14–14. Preview PDF (2012)] reference page 
  • Wheeler, Q.D. 2007: Invertebrate systematics or spineless taxonomy? Pp. 10-18 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Wilkins, J.S. 2011: Philosophically speaking, how many species concepts are there? Zootaxa, 2765: 58–60. Preview
  • Winston, J.E. 2007: Archives of a small planet: The significance of museum collections and museum-based research in invertebrate taxonomy. Pp. 47-54 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF


  • Baurain, D.; Brinkmann, H.; Philippe, H. 2007: Lack of Resolution in the Animal Phylogeny: Closely Spaced Cladogeneses or Undetected Systematic Errors? Molecular biology and evolution, 24: 6-9. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msl137
  • Bourlat, S.J.; Nielsen, C.; Economou, A.D.; Telford, M.J. 2008: Testing the new animal phylogeny: a phylum level molecular analysis of the animal kingdom. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 49: 23-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2008.07.008 PDF
  • DeSalle, R.; Schierwater, B. 2008: An even "newer" animal phylogeny. BioEssays, 30: 1043-1047. doi: 10.1002/bies.20842 PDF
  • Dunn, C.W. et al. 2008: Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature, 452: 745-749. doi: 10.1038/nature06614
  • Edgecombe, G.D. et al. 2011: Higher-level metazoan relationships: recent progress and remaining questions. Organisms diversity & evolution, 11(2): 151–172. doi: 10.1007/s13127-011-0044-4
  • Giribet, G. et al. 2007: A modern look at the Animal Tree of Life. Pp. 61-79 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt PDF
  • Glenner, H.; Hansen, A.J.; Sørensen, M.V.; Ronquist, F.; Huelsenbeck, J.P.; Willerslev, E. 2004: Bayesian inference of the metazoan phylogeny: a combined molecular and morphological approach. Current biology, 14: 1644-1649. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2004.09.027
  • Halanych, K.M. 2004: The new view of animal phylogeny. Annual review of ecology, evolution, and systematics, 35: 229-256. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.35.112202.130124 PDF PDF
  • Jenner, R.A. 2004: Towards a phylogeny of the Metazoa: evaluating alternative phylogenetic positions of Platyhelminthes, Nemertea, and Gnathostomulida, with a critical reappraisal of cladistic characters. Contributions to zoology, 73(1-2): 3-163.
  • Leys, S.P.; Eerkes-Medrano, D. 2005: Gastrulation in calcareous sponges: in search of Haeckel’s Gastraea. Integrative & comparative biology, 45: 342–351. doi: 10.1093/icb/45.2.342 PDF
  • Medina, M.; Collins, A.G.; Silberman, J.D.; Sogin, M.L. 2001: Evaluating hypotheses of basal animal phylogeny using complete sequences of large and small subunit rRNA. PNAS, 98: 9707-9712. doi: 10.1073/pnas.171316998 JSTOR PubMed
  • Nielsen, C. 2001: Animal evolution: interrelationships of the living phyla (2nd edition). Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0198506821 ISBN 9780198506829
  • Schierwater, B.; DeSalle, R. 2007: Can we ever identify the Urmetazoan? Integrative and comparative biology, 47: 670-676. doi: 10.1093/icb/icm040
  • Schierwater, B. et al. 2009: Concatenated Analysis Sheds Light on Early Metazoan Evolution and Fuels a Modern “Urmetazoon” Hypothesis. PLoS Biol, 7(1): e1000020. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000020
  • Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. 2003: Old trees, new trees: is there any progress? Zoology, 106: 291-301. ISSN: 0944-2006 doi: 10.1078/0944-2006-00128
  • Sorensen, M.V.; Funch, P.; Willerslev, E.; Hansen, A.J.; Olesen J. 2000: On the phylogeny of the metazoa in the light of Cycliophora and Micrognathozoa. Zoologischer anzeiger, 239: 297-318. ISSN: 0044-5231
  • Syed, T.; Gudo, M.; Gutmann, M. 2007: The new animal phylogeny - dilemma or progress? Denisia, (20): 295-312. ISSN: 1608-8700
  • Telford, M.J. 2006: Animal phylogeny. Current biology, 16: R981-R985. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.10.048
  • Zrzavý, J. 2002: Gastrotricha and metazoan phylogeny. Zoologica scripta, 32: 61-81. doi: 10.1046/j.1463-6409.2003.00104.x

zoological nomenclature/terminology

  • Anon. 2010: Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology Updated March 2010
  • Bour, R. 2010: Constant Duméril’s Zoologie Analytique was published in 1805. Bionomina, 1: 56–57. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
  • Carlos, C.J.; Voisin, J.-f. 2009: A few remarks on the proposed amendment of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa, 2198: 67-68. Abstract & excerpt
  • Dubois, A. 2007: Nomina zoologica linnaeana. Pp. 81-106 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa, 1668: 1–766. Abstract & excerpt
  • Dubois, A. 2008: Authors of zoological publications and nomina are signatures, not persons. Zootaxa, 1771: 63-68. Abstract & excerpt
  • Dubois, A. 2009: Incorporation of nomina of higher-ranked taxa into the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature: the nomenclatural status of class-series zoological nomina published in a non-Latinized form. Zootaxa, 2106: 1-12. Abstract & excerpt
  • Dubois, A. 2010: Retroactive changes should be introduced in the Code only with great care: problems related to the spellings of nomina. Zootaxa, 2426: 1-42. Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2010: Bionomina, a forum for the discussion of nomenclatural and terminological issues in biology. Bionomina, 1: 1–10. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2011: The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature must be drastically improved before it is too late. Bionomina, 2: 1–104. Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. 2012: The distinction between introduction of a new nomen and subsequent use of a previously introduced nomen in zoological nomenclature. Bionomina, 5: 57-80. Preview
  • Dubois, A.; Minelli, A.; Zhang, Z.-Q. 2011: Recommendations about nomenclature for papers submitted to Zootaxa. Zootaxa, 2943: 58–62. Preview PDF
  • Dubois, A. et al. 2013: Nomenclatural and taxonomic problems related to the electronic publication of new nomina and nomenclatural acts in zoology, with brief comments on optical discs and on the situation in botany. Zootaxa 3735(1): 1–94. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3735.1.1 reference page 
  • Flann, C. 2011: BioCode: third time lucky? Zootaxa, 2874: 38–40. Preview
  • Hedges, S.B. 2011: On the use of high-level taxonomic names. Zootaxa, 2867: 67-68. Preview PDF
  • Hoquet, T. 2010: Why terms matter to biological theories: the term “origin” as used by Darwin. Bionomina, 1: 58–60. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
  • ICZN 1987: Official Lists and Indexes of Names and Works in Zoology. London: ICZN. ISBN: 0853010048
  • ICZN 2012: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. Zootaxa, 3450: 1-7. Preview PDF reference page 
  • ICZN 2012: Amendment of Articles 8, 9, 10, 21 and 78 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature to expand and refine methods of publication. ZooKeys, 219: 1-10. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.219.3944 reference page 
  • Kuhn, J.H.; Wahl-Jensen, V. 2010: Being obsessive-compulsive about terminology and nomenclature is not a vice, but a virtue. Bionomina, 1: 11–14. ISSN: 1179-7649 (print edition) ISSN: 1179-7657 (online edition) Preview PDF
  • Minelli, A. 2013: Zoological nomenclature in the digital era. Frontiers in zoology, 10: 4. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-10-4
  • Nemésio, A. 2011: Nomenclatural itch versus patrolling itch: comments on O’Hara (2011). Zootaxa, 2986: 63–68. Preview
  • O’Hara, J.E. 2011: Cyber nomenclaturalists and the “CESA itch”. Zootaxa, 2933: 57–64. Preview PDF
  • Sepkoski, J.J. 2002: A compendium of fossil marine animal genera. Bulletins of American paleontology 363: 1-560. [not seen]
  • Steyskal, G.C. 1970: On gender concord in binomina. Coleopterists bulletin, 24: 57-58. JSTOR
  • Zhang, Z.-Q. 2012: A new era in zoological nomenclature and taxonomy: ICZN accepts e-publication and launches ZooBank. Zootaxa, 3450: 8-8. Preview PDF reference page 

additional references


Vernacular names

Afrikaans: Diere
Akan: Mbowa
Alemannisch: Tierer
العربية: حيوان
aragonés: Animals
arpetan: Animâl
অসমীয়া: প্রাণী
asturianu: Animal
Bahasa Indonesia: Hewan
Bahasa Melayu: Haiwan
bamanankan: Bagan
বাংলা: প্রাণী
Basa Sunda: Sato
беларуская: Жывёлы
भोजपुरी: जानवर
Boarisch: Viecher
bosanski: Životinje
brezhoneg: Loen
български: Животни
català: Animal
čeština: Živočichové
corsu: Animali
српски / srpski: Животиња
Cymraeg: Anifeiliaid
dansk: Dyr
Deutsch: Tiere
eesti: Loomad
Ελληνικά: Ζώα
English: animals
español: Animales
Esperanto: besto
euskara: Animaliak
فارسی: جانوران
føroyskt: Djór
français: Animaux
Frysk: Dier
Gaeilge: Ainmhí
Gàidhlig: Beathach
galego: Animais
한국어: 동물계
Հայերեն: Կենդանիներ
हिन्दी: जन्तु; जानवर; जीव; पशु; प्राणी
hrvatski: Životinje
Ido: Animalo
interlingua: Animales
íslenska: Dýr
italiano: Animali
עברית: בעלי חיים
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಪ್ರಾಣಿ
Kapampangan: Animal
ქართული: ცხოველები
kernowek: Enyval
Kurdî: Candar
Latina: Animalia
latviešu: Dzīvnieki
Lëtzebuergesch: Déiereräich
lietuvių: Gyvūnai
Limburgs: Diere
magyar: Állatok
македонски: Животни
Malagasy: Biby
मराठी: प्राणी
مازِرونی: جانورون
Nāhuatl: Yōlcatl
Nederlands: Dieren
日本語: 動物界
Nordfriisk: Diarten
norsk bokmål: Dyr
norsk nynorsk: Dyr
Nouormand: Animâ
occitan: Animals
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਜਾਨਵਰ
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សត្វ
Plattdüütsch: Beester
polski: Zwierzęta
português: Animais / Metazoários
română: Animale
Runa Simi: Uywa
русский: Животные
Basa Sunda: Sato
sicilianu: Armali
Simple English: Animal
slovenčina: Živočíchy
slovenščina: Živali
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Životinje
suomi: Eläinkunta
svenska: Djur
Tagalog: hayop
தமிழ்: விலங்கு
ไทย: สัตว์
Tiếng Việt: Động vật
Tsetsêhestâhese: Hova
Türkçe: Hayvanlar
українська: Тварини
اردو: جانور
West-Vlams: Bêeste
ייִדיש: בעלי־חיים
Zazaki: Heywani
中文(繁體)‎: 動物界
中文(简体)‎: 动物界
For more multimedia, look at Animalia on Wikimedia Commons.
Wikibooks Wikibooks has a Dichotomous Key related to this taxon Animalia.