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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Subphylum: Myxozoa
Classes: Malacosporea - Myxosporea


Myxozoa Grassé, 1970

See also


Burmeister (1830)[edit]

Burmeister H. 1830. Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte. Halle, Anton & Gelbcke: 1–594, [1], [2].

Regnum Thiere [p. 283]

  • I. Subregnum Myxozoa
    • 1. Classis Protozoa
    • 2. Classis Corallina
    • 3. Classis Medusina

Levine et al. (1980)[edit]

From N. D. Levine; J. O. Corliss; F. E. G. Cox; G. Deroux; J. Grain; B. M. Honigberg; G. F. Leedale; A. R. Loeblich, III; J. Lom; D. Lynn; E. G. Merinfeld; F. C. Page; G. Poljansky; V. Sprague; J. Vavra; and F. G. Wallace (1980). A newly revised classification of the Protozoa. J. Protozool., 27:37–58, [3].

Subkingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [4], [5]. See Brands (1989-2005), [6]

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

Lom in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Lom, J., 1990. 4. Phylum Myxozoa: 36–52. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 36-52. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [7].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [8].

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

A revised six-kingdom system of life, [9].

Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota

Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota

  • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Goldfuss 1818 stat. nov. Owen 1858 em. [almost certainly paraphyletic]
  • Kingdom 2. Animalia Linnaeus 1758 em. Cavalier-Smith 1995 (= Metazoa Haeckel 1874)
    • Subkingdom 1. Radiata Linnaeus 1758 em. stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1983 [almost certainly paraphyletic]
    • Subkingdom 2. Myxozoa Grassé 1970 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1996
    • Subkingdom 3. Bilateria Hatschek 1888 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1983 [probably paraphyletic]

Kent et al., in Lee at al. (2000)[edit]

Kent, M.L., Moser, M., Marques, A. & Lom, J. 2000. Phylum Myxozoa. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 127-148, [10]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [11].

In "protozoa", "related to multicellular groups"

Lom & Dykova (2006)[edit]

Lom, J.; Dykova, I. 2006: Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia parasitologica, 53(1): 1–36, [12].

Phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970

Alimov et al. (2007)[edit]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2007. Protista 2: Handbook on zoology. (Протисты 2: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2007, 1141 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [13].


Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [14].


  • Evans, N.M. et al. (in press): The Phylogenetic Position of Myxozoa: Exploring Conflicting Signals in Phylogenomic and Ribosomal Datasets. Molecular biology and evolution, DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msq159
  • Jiménez-Guri, E.; Philippe, H.; Okamura, B.; Holland, P.W.H. 2007: Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science, 317: 116–118.
  • Kent, M.L.; Andree, K.B.; Bartholomew, J.L.; El-Matbouli, M.; Desser, S.S.; Devlin, R.H.; Feist, S.W.; Hedrick, R.P.; Hoffmann, R.W.; Khattra, J.; Hallett, S.L.; Lester, R.J.G.; Longshaw, M.; Palenzeula, O.; Siddall, M.E.; Xiao, C. 2001: Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 48: 395–413.
  • Lopes, D.A., Corrêa-Gomes, D. & Knoff, M. 2017. Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016. ZooKeys 711: 1—52. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.711.14753. Reference page
  • Monteiro, A.S.; Okamura, B.; Holland, P.W.H. 2002: Orphan worm finds a home: Buddenbrockia is a myxozoan. Molecular biology and evolution, 19: 968–971. [15]
  • Morris, D.J.; Adams, A. 2007: Sacculogenesis of Buddenbrockia plumatellae (Myxozoa) within the invertebrate host Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) with comments on the evolutionary relationships of the Myxozoa. International journal for parasitology, 37(10): 1163–1171.
  • Okamura, B.; Curry, A.; Wood, T.S.; Canning, E.U. 2002: Ultrastructure identifies Buddenbrockia as a myxozoan and reveals/identifies the bilaterian origin of the Myxozoa. Parasitology, 124: 215–223.
  • Xiao, C.; Desser, S.S. 2000: Cladistic analysis of myxozoan species with known alternating life-cycles. Systematic parasitology, 46: 81–91.
  • Zrzavý, J. 2001: The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia parasitologica, 48: 81–103.


Vernacular names[edit]

English: myxozoans
日本語: ミクソゾア
polski: myksosporidiowce
português: Mixozoários
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Myxozoa on Wikimedia Commons.