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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protista
Supergroup: Bikonta
Cladus: Excavata
Superphylum: Discicristata
Phylum: Euglenozoa
Subphyla: Plicostoma - Saccostoma


Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

Alternative classifications[edit]

T. Cavalier-Smith (1981).[edit]

From Eukaryotic kingdoms: seven or nine?

In empire Eukaryota

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla.

In Kingdom Protista
Assemblage "Euglenozoa" named after kingdom Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981

Patterson (1988)[edit]

Patterson, D. J. 1988. The evolution of Protozoa. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 83 (suppl. 1): 580-600, [1].

[Table 1. Major groups of protists distinguished by ultrastructural identity]

Cavalier-Smith (1993a)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1993). The origin, losses and gains of chloroplasts. In: Origins of plastids (pp. 291-348). Springer US, [2].

  • Phylim Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981
    • Subphylum 1. Euglenoida Bütschli stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1992
    • Subphylum 2. Kinetoplasta Honigberg 1963 stat. nov.
    • Subphylum 3. Diplonemia Cavalier-Smith, 1992

T. Cavalier-Smith (1993b).[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [3].

Empire Eukaryota

Simpson (1997)[edit]

Simpson, A. G. (1997). The identity and composition of the Euglenozoa. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 148(3), 318-328, [4].

Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

T. Cavalier-Smith (1998).[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life.

In Kingdom Protozoa, Subkingdom Neozoa, Infrakingdom Discicristata
Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The diversity of eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Euglenozoa

Alimov et al. (2000)[edit]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2000. Protista 1: Handbook on zoology (Протисты 1: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000, 679 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [5].


Leedale & Vickerman, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Leedale, G.F. & Vickerman, K., 2000. Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 1135-1185, [6]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [7].

In “protozoa”, “flagellated protists

  • Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

T. Cavalier-Smith (2002).[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

In kingdom Protozoa, subkingdom Gymnomyxa, infrakingdom Excavata, superphylum Discicristata
Phylum Euglenozoa

Alastair G. B. Simpson (2003)[edit]

From Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota)

In Excavata
Clade Euglenozoa

Adl et al. (2005)[edit]

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [8].


Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [9].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [10].

For more multimedia, look at Euglenozoa on Wikimedia Commons.


  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith, The excavate protozoan phyla Metamonada Grassé emend. (Anaeromonadea, Parabasalia, Carpediemonas, Eopharyngia) and Loukozoa emend. (Jakobea, Malawimonas): their evolutionary affinities and new higher taxa, Internat. Journal of Syst. and Evol. Microbiol. 53, 1741-1758 (2003).
  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith, Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338-348 (2003).