Heterokonta

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Main Page
Superregnum: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Chromista
Subkingdom: Chromobionta
Infraregnum: Heterokonta
Classes: Actihrysophyceae – Bacillariophyceae – Bicosoecea – Bolidophyceae – Chrysophyceae – Eustigmatophyceae – Hyphochytridiomycetes – Labyrinthulomycetes – Oomycetes – Opalinea – Pelagophyceae – Phaeophyceae – Phaeothamniophyceae – Pinguiophyceae – Proteromonadea – Raphidophyceae – Synurophyceae – Xanthophyceae

Name[edit]

1. Heterokontae Lüther, 1899

2. Heterokonta sensu Copeland, 1956

3. Heterokonta sensu Cavalier-Smith, 1986

Alternative classifications[edit]

Lüther (1899)[edit]

Lüther, A. (1899). Über Chlorosaccus eine neue Gattung der Süsswasseralgen. Bihang til Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 24: 1-22. From Pascher (1912), p. 9, [1].

  • Class Heterokontae
    • Order Chloromonadales
    • Order Confervales

Pascher (1912)[edit]

Pascher, A. 1912 [1913]. Zur Gliederung der Heterokonten (Kieine Beiträge zur Kenntnis unserer Mikroflora 3). Hedwigia, 53: 6-22, [2].

  • Heterokontae
    • Heterochloridales
    • Heterocapsales
    • Heterococcales
    • Heterotrichales
    • Heterosiphonales

Pascher (1939)[edit]

Pascher, A., 1939. Heterokonten. In: Rabenhorsts Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz. Aufl. 2 Bd. XI. Leipzig: Akad. Verlagsges (1937–1939). p. 204, [3].

Heterokontae

  • Class Heterochloridineae
  • Class Rhizochloridineae
  • Class Hetcrocapsineae
  • Class Heterococcincae
  • Class Hetcrotrichineae
  • Class Heterosiphonineae

Copeland (1956)[edit]

Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, pp. 63-67, [4].

Cavalier-Smith (1978)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1978). The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems, 10(1), 93-114.

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [5].

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
      • Subkingdom Cryptophyta
        • Phylum Cryptophyta
      • Subkingdom Chromophyta
        • Phylum Heterokonta
          • Subphylum Chrysophytina
            • Chrysophyceae (including Bicoecida and Silicoflagellida)
            • Xanthophyceae
            • Phaeophyceae
            • Chloromonadophyceae (= Raphidiophyceae)
          • Subphylum Phycomycotina (Oomycetes, Hyphochytridiomycetes, Thraustochytrids, Labyrinthulids)
        • Phylum Bacillariophyta
        • Phylum Eustigmatophyta
        • Phylum Haptophyta
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1986)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1986). The kingdom Chromista, origin and systematics. In: Round, F.E. and Chapman, D.J. (eds.). Progress in Phycological Research. 4: 309–347, [6].

Kingdom Chromista

  • Subkingdom Cryptophyta
    • Phylum Cryptophyta
  • Subkingdom Chromophyta
    • Phylum Heterokonta
      • Subphylum Ochrista
        • Class Synuraceae
        • Class Xanthophyceae
        • Class Chrysophyceae
        • Class Phaeophyceae
        • Class Bicosoecea
        • Class Eustigmatophyceae
      • Subphylum Pseudofungi (= Heterkontimycotina)
        • Superclass Pythiista
          • Class Oomycetes
          • Class Hyphochytrea
        • Superclass Labyrinthista
          • Class Labyrinthulea
            • Order Thraustochytriales
            • Order Labyrinthulales
    • Phylum Haptophyta

Cavalier-Smith (1989)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith. T. (1989). The Kingdom Chromista. In: J.C. Green et al. (eds). The Chromophyte Algae: problems and Perspectives, pp. 381-407, [7].

  • Kingdom Chromista
    • Subkingdom Cryptista
    • Subkingdom Chromophyta
      • Phylum Heterokonta
        • Subphylum Ochrista
        • Subphylum Bicoecia
        • Subphylum Pseudofungi ("Not now a synonym for Heterokontimycotina Dick 1976.")
          • Class Pythiistea
        • Subphylum Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith 1986. stat. nov.
          • Class Labyrinthulea
      • Phylum Haptomonada

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [8]

  • Heterokonta

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [9]

  • Heterokonta

Hausmann et al. (2003)[edit]

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Cavalier-Smith (2006)[edit]

From Thomas Cavalier-Smith & Ema E-Y. Chao: Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). [10] Supplementary material (PDF)

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Margulis, L., M.J. Chapman. Kingdoms and Domains: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. Fourth edition. Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier, 2009.

Cavalier-Smith & Scoble (2013)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T & Scoble, J. M. (2013). Phylogeny of Heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes. European Journal of Protistology 49: 328-353, [11].

Infrakingdom Heterokonta

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [12].