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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Stramenopiles


Stramenopiles Patterson, 1989

Alternative classifications[edit]

Patterson (1989)[edit]

Patterson, D.J. (1989). Stramenopiles: chromophytes from a protistan perspective. In: The chromophyte algae: problems and perspectives, J.C. Green, B.S.C. Leadbeater and W.L. Diver (eds), Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, pp. 357-379, [1].


  • core chromophytes
  • "protozoan taxa that may be related to the core chromophytes"
    • slopalinids (opalinids and proteromonads)
    • bicosoecids
    • actinomonads (Pedinellales and actinophryid heliozoa)
    • labyrinthulids, thraustochytrids, Diplophrys, and Sorodiplophrys
    • ?Spiromonas, Perkinsus and the Apicomplexa ["there is no longer any good case for regarding the Apicomplexa as being related to stramenopiles"]
    • ?foraminifera (Boderia)
    • ?oomycetes

Leipe et al. (1994), Patterson (1994)[edit]

Leipe, D. D, P. O. Wainright, J. H. Gunderson, D. Porter, D. J. Patterson, F. Valois, S. Himmerich, and M. L. Sogin. 1994. The stramenopiles from a molecular perspective: small subunit rDNA sequences from Labyrinthuloides minuta and Cafeteria roenbergensis. Phycologia 33:369–377.

Also published in: Patterson, D.J. (1994). Protozoa: evolution and systematics. Pages 1–14 in K. Hausmann and N. Hülsmann, eds. Progress in protozoology. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Protozoology. Fischer, Stuttgart, [2].

Stramenopiles sedis mutabilis

Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes, (PDF)

In Eukaryotes
Clade Stramenopiles

Patterson in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Patterson, D.J., 2000. Residual Heterotrophic Stramenopiles. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 751-754, [3]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [4].

In “protozoa”, “stramenopiles

Reviers (2002)[edit]

From Biologie et phylogénie des algues, [5]

Eukaryota [see Algae]

  • Ochrophyta (= Ochrista, Heterokontophyta, Stramenochromes)

Adl et al. (2005)[edit]

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [6]

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, (PDF)


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [7].