Virus

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Bacteriophage

Taxonavigation

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Regnum: Virus
Phylum: not divided
Classis: not divided
Ordines: Caudovirales - Herpesvirales - Ligamenvirales - Mononegavirales - Nidovirales - Picornavirales - Tymovirales


Unassigned Familiae: Adenoviridae - Ampullaviridae - Arenaviridae - Ascoviridae - Asfarviridae - Astroviridae - Avsunviroidae - Baculoviridae - Barnaviridae - Birnaviridae - Bromoviridae - Bunyaviridae - Caliciviridae - Caulimoviridae - Chrysoviridae - Circoviridae - Closteroviridae - Corticoviridae - Cystoviridae - Endornaviridae - Flaviviridae - Flexiviridae - Fuselloviridae - Geminiviridae - Globuloviridae - Guttaviridae - Hepadnaviridae - Hypoviridae - Inoviridae - Iridoviridae - Leviviridae - Luteoviridae - Metaviridae - Microviridae - Mimiviridae - Nanoviridae - Narnaviridae - Nimaviridae - Nodaviridae - Ophioviridae - Orthomyxoviridae - Papillomaviridae - Partitiviridae - Parvoviridae - Phycodnaviridae - Picobirnaviridae - Plasmaviridae - Polydnaviridae - Polyomaviridae - Pospiviroidae - Potyviridae - Poxviridae - Pseudoviridae - Reoviridae - Retroviridae - Tectiviridae - Tetraviridae - Togaviridae - Tombusviridae - Totiviridae 


Unassigned Genera: Anellovirus – Benyvirus – Deltavirus – Furovirus – Hepevirus – Hordeivirus – Idaeovirus – Ourmiavirus – Pecluvirus – Polemovirus – Pomovirus – Rhizidiovirus – Salterprovirus – Sobemovirus – Tenuivirus – Tobamovirus – Tobravirus – Umbravirus – Varicosavirus


Unassigned Species: Hawaiian rubus leaf curl virus - Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus

Name

  • Aphanobionta Novak, 1930, Rothmaler, 1951
  • Archaeophyta Barkley, 1939 non Archephyta Haeckel, 1866
  • Vira Holmes, 1939
  • Viriphyta McKinney, 1944
  • Virales Holmes, 1948
  • Archetista Jahn & Jahn, 1949
  • Vireae Barkley, 1949
  • Acellularae Traub, 1963
  • Protobiota Hsen-Hsu, 1965
  • Vira Barkley, 1970
  • Acytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Akamara Hurst, 2000

Alternative classifications

Holmes in Breed et al. (1948)

Holmes, F.O. (1948). Order Virales: the filterable viruses. In: Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Hitchens, A.P. (eds). Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, [1], [2].

Division Schizophyta

  • Supplements: groups of uncertain relationship
    • Order Virales Breed, Murray and Hitchens, 1944
      • Suborder 1. Phagineae
      • Suborder 2. Phytophagineae
      • Suborder 3. Zoophagineae

Barkley (1949)

Barkley, Fred A. Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos. Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83-103, [3].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
    • Schizophyta
      • Schizomycophyta (Myxothallophyta)
        • Vireae (Viriphyta)
          • Bacteriophagales (Zoophagi, Phytophagi)
          • Rickettsiales
        • Schyzomycetes (Eubacteriae)
        • Spirochaetae
      • Cyanophyta
  • Protista
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Rothmaler (1951)

Rothmaler, Werner. (1951). Die Abteilungen und Klassen der Pflanzen. Feddes Rep Spec Nov Reg Veg 3: 256-266, [4], [5].

Lwoff, Horne & Tournier (1962)

Lwoff, A., Horne, R., & Tournier, P. (1962). A system of viruses. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol., 27, 51-55.

Key characteristics for classification:

  • Nucleic acid (RNA or DNA): R or D
    • Capsid symmetry (helical, cubical or dual): H, C or B
      • Presence of a lipid envelope (naked or enveloped): N or E
        • Diameter of capsid, or number of capsomers

Hsen-Hsu (1965)

Hsen-Hsu, Hu (1965). The major groups of living beings: a new classification. Taxon 14(8): 254-261.

  • Protobiota [including Rickettsiae, viruses and bacteriophages]
  • Cytobiota
    • Bacteriobionta
    • Myxobionta
    • Mycobionta
    • Phytobionta
    • Zoobionta

Baltimore (1971)

Baltimore, D. (1971). Expression of animal virus genomes. Bacteriological Reviews, 35(3), 235, [6].

  • Class I: double-stranded DNA viruses
  • Class II: single-stranded DNA viruses
  • Class III: double-stranded RNA viruses
  • Class IV: single-stranded RNA viruses whose mRNA is identical in base sequence to virion RNA.
  • Class V: single-stranded RNA viruses whose genome is complementary in base sequence to the mRNA
  • Class VI: RNA tumor viruses and other viruses which have a DNA intermediate in their growth and a single-stranded RNA genome.

King et al. (2011)

King, A. M. Q., Adams, M. J., Carstens, E. B., Lefkowitz, E. J. (eds). Virus taxonomy: 9h report of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, 2011, [7]. Partially disponible at: www.ictvonline.org.

  • dsDNA viruses
    • Order Caudovirales
    • Order Herpesvirales
    • Unassigned viruses
  • ssDNA viruses
    • Unassigned viruses
  • Reverse transcribing DNA and RNA viruses
    • Unassigned viruses
  • dsRNA viruses
    • Unassigned viruses
  • Negative sense ssRNA viruses
    • Order Mononegavirales
    • Unassigned viruses
  • Positive sense ssRNA viruses
    • Order Nidovirales
    • Order Picornavirales
    • Order Tymovirales
  • Unassigned viruses
  • Subviral agents
    • Satellites and other virus-dependent nucleic acids
    • Viroids
    • Prions

See also

References

  • Gibbs, A. J. 2013: Viral taxonomy needs a spring clean; its exploration era is over. Virology Journal 10:254, [8].
  • Collier, Leslie; Balows, Albert; Sussman, Max 1998: Topley and Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections ninth edition, Volume 1, Virology, volume editors: Mahy, Brian and Collier, Leslie. Arnold. ISBN 0340663162.
  • Dimmock, N.J.; Easton, Andrew J.; Leppard, Keith 2007: Introduction to Modern Virology sixth edition, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 1405136456.
  • Knipe, David M.; Howley, Peter M.; Griffin, Diane E.; Lamb, Robert A.; Martin, Malcolm A; Roizman, Bernard; Straus Stephen E. 2007: Fields Virology Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0781760607.
  • Shors, Teri 2008: Understanding Viruses. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 0763729329.

Vernacular names

Afrikaans: Virus
Alemannisch: Virus (pl. Vire)
العربية: فيروس
অসমীয়া: বিষাণু
asturianu: Virus
Avañe'ẽ: Popĩami
Bahasa Indonesia: Virus
Bahasa Melayu: Virus
বাংলা: ভাইরাস
Basa Sunda: Pirus
Boarisch: Viarus (pl. Viarusse, Viarn)
bosanski: Virus (pl. virusi)
български: Вирус
català: Virus
čeština: virus (pl. viry)
српски / srpski: вирус
Cymraeg: Feirws
dansk: Virus (pl. vira)
Deutsch: Virus (pl. Viren)
eesti: Viirus (pl. Viirused)
Ελληνικά: Ιός (pl. Ιοί)
English: Virus
español: Virus
Esperanto: Viruso
euskara: Birus
فارسی: ویروس
français: Virus
galego: Virus
ગુજરાતી: વિષાણુ
한국어: 바이러스
Hawai`i: Mea ho‘oma‘i
Հայերեն: Հարուցիչ
हिन्दी: विषाणु
hrvatski: Virus
interlingua: Virus
íslenska: Veira
italiano: Virus
עברית: נגיפים‏ / וירוסים
ქართული: ვირუსი
Latina: Virus
latviešu: Vīruss
lietuvių: Virusas
magyar: Vírus
македонски: Вирус
मराठी: विषाणु
Nederlands: Virus
नेपाली: विषाणु
नेपाल भाषा: विषाणु
日本語: ウイルス
Nordfriisk: Wiiren
norsk bokmål: Virus
norsk nynorsk: Virus
occitan: Virús
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਵਿਸ਼ਾਣੂ
پښتو: ويروس
ភាសាខ្មែរ: វិសាណូ, មេរោគ
polski: wirusy
português: Vírus
română: Virus
Runa Simi: Añaw
русский: Вирус
slovenčina: Vírus
slovenščina: Virus
suomi: Virus (pl. virukset)
svenska: Virus
ไทย: ไวรัส
Tiếng Việt: Virus
Türkçe: Virüs
українська: Вірус
Volapük: Virud
ייִדיש: ווירוס
中文: 病毒
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