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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Hacrobia
Phylum: Heliozoa
Classis: Centrohelea
Ordo: Centrohelida
Familiae: AcanthocystidaeHeterophryidaeRaphidiophryidae


Centrohelida Honigberg et al., 1964 [?]



  • Cavalier-Smith, T.; von der Heyden, S. 2007: Molecular phylogeny, scale evolution and taxonomy of centrohelid Heliozoa. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 44: 1186–1203.
  • Gast, R.J. (2016). Centrohelida and Other Heliozoan-Like Protists. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 1-17. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32669-6_28-1
  • Scott, F.J.; Marchant, H.J. Ed. 2005. Antarctic marine protists Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra. ISBN 0-642-56835-9. 563 pp.


Alternative classifications[edit]

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

Class: Actinopodea
Subclass: Heliozoia

Lee et al. (1985)[edit]

From J.J. Lee, S.H. Hutner and E.C. Bovee, (eds.), An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa, Society of Protozoologists, 1st ed., 1985, [1]. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [2].

Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss, 1818) von Siebold, 1846

Siemensma (1991)[edit]

Siemensma, F.J. (1991): Heliozoea. In: Nackte Rhizopoda und Heliozoea (Protozoenfauna Band 2). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, New York, pp. 173–285, [3], [4].


Mikrjukov, Siemensma, & Patterson, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Mikrjukov, K.A., Siemensma, F.J. & Patterson, D.J., 2000. Phylum Heliozoa. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 860-871, [5]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [6].

In “protozoa”, “amoeboid protists

Mikrjukov (2002)[edit]

Mikrjukov, K. A. (2002). The Centrohelid Heliozoans (Centroheliozoa). KMK Scientific, Moscow, [7].

Class Centrohelea Cavalier-Smith, 1993

Hausmann et al. (2003)[edit]

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Nikolaev et al. (2005)[edit]

From The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes, [8].


Okamoto et al. (2009)[edit]

Okamoto N., Chantangsi C., Horak A., Leander B. S., Keeling P. J. (2009). Molecular phylogeny and description of the novel katablepharid Roombia truncata gen. et sp. nov., and establishment of the Hacrobia taxon nov. PLoS One 4, e7080, [9].

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S. M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [10].

Incertae sedis Eukaryota

Boudouresque (2015)[edit]

Boudouresque, C. F. (2015). Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Unicellular Eukaryotes. In: Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 191-257). Springer: Netherlands, [11].


Speijer et al. (2015)[edit]

Speijer, D., Lukeš, J., & Eliáš, M. (2015). Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life. PNAS, 112(29), 8827-8834, [12]