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It covers Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, Protista and all other forms of life.

So far we have 545,088 articles

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A collaboration between Wikispecies and ZooKeys has been announced. PhytoKeys also joined the collaboration in November 2010. Images of species from ZooKeys and PhytoKeys will be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons and used in Wikispecies.



Distinguished author

Doctor Francesco Redi.jpg

Francesco Redi
1626–1697. Standard IPNI form: Redi

Francesco Redi was an Italian entomologist, parasitologist and toxicologist, sometimes referred to as the "founder of experimental biology" and the "father of modern parasitology". Having a doctoral degree in both medicine and philosophy from the University of Pisa at the age of 21, he worked in various cities of Italy.

Redi is best known for his series of experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti ("Experiments on the Generation of Insects"), which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. The book is one of the first steps in refuting "spontaneous generation", a theory also known as "Aristotelian abiogenesis". At the time, prevailing theory was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat, which Redi was able to disprove. In an experiment, He used samples of rotting meat that were either fully exposed to the air, partially exposed to the air, or not exposed to air at all. Redi showed that both fully and partially exposed rotting meat developed fly maggots, whereas rotting meat that was not exposed to air did not develop maggots. This discovery completely changed the way people viewed the decomposition of organisms and prompted further investigations into insect life cycles and into entomology in general. It is also an early example of forensic entomology.

In Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Redi was the first to describe ectoparasites, such as lice (Phthiraptera), fleas (Siphonaptera), and some mites (Acari). His next treatise in 1684, titled Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi ("Observations on Living Animals, that are in Living Animals") recorded the descriptions and the illustrations of more than 100 parasites. In it he also differentiates the earthworm (generally regarded as a helminth) and Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm. An important innovation from the book is his experiments in chemotherapy in which he employed what is now called "scientific control", the basis of experimental design in modern biological research. Perhaps, his most significant observation was that parasites produce eggs and develop from them, which contradicted the prevailing opinion that they are produced spontaneously. Altogether he is known to have described some 180 species of parasites.

See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.

Species of the month

Blue Glaucus

Glaucus atlanticus

Glaucus atlanticus

Some facts on this sea slug:

Size: Between 3 and 5 cm.

Habitat: Floats upside down on the surface tension of the ocean.

Range: Distributed throughout the world's oceans, in temperate and tropical waters.

Diet: Siphonophores (jellyfish-like creatures).

Reproduction: Hermaphroditic creature, possessing both male and female reproductive organs.

First described: By the German-Polish naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary Georg Forster in 1777.


Glaucus atlanticus has a tough stomach indeed. This sea slug's diet consists of venomous jellyfish-like creatures called "Siphonophores". Not only is Glaucus atlanticus immune to the stinging cells of the Siphonophores, but it also incorporates them into its own body as fully functioning defensive weapons. The eaten venomous cells reach the rayed appendages where they are absorbed into muscularized chambers at the tips. Here they are nourished and stored, ready to be squeezed out in case it comes under attack. These slugs, which are closely related to marine snails, drift upside-down with the currents, periodically gulping bubbles of gas into their stomachs to maintain buoyancy, and clinging to the surface tension with their muscular feet. They belong to the marine gastropod mollusks and make part of the Glaucidae or "sea slugs" family.

See also: Species of previous months

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