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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Rhizaria

Clade: Retaria

Phyla: CercozoaForaminiferaRadiozoa

Classes (overview): Acantharia – Ascetosporea – Chlorarachnea – Globothalamea – Granofilosea – Gromiidea – Imbricatea – Metromonadea – Monothalamea – Phytomyxea – Polycystina – Proteomyxidea – Sarcomonadea – Skiomonadea – Sticholonchea – Thecofilosea – Tubothalamea


Rhizaria Cavalier-Smith, 2002


  • Archibald, J.M.; Keeling, P.J. 2004: Actin and ubiquitin protein sequences support a cercozoan/foraminiferan ancestry for the plasmodiophorid plant pathogens. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 51(1): 113–118. [1]
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2003: Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. European journal of protistology, 39: 338–348.
  • Parfrey LW, Barbero E, Lasser E, Dunthorn M, Bhattacharya D, et al. (2006) Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity. PLoS Genet 2(12): e220. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220


Vernacular names[edit]

中文: 有孔虫下界


Cavalier-Smith (2002)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T 2002: The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol, 52:297-354.


Nikolaev et al. (2005)[edit]

From The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes, [2].


Adl et al. (2005)[edit]

Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 52: 399–451. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x PDF

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S. M., Simpson, A. G. B., Lane, C. E., Lukeš, J., Bass, D., Bowser, S. S., Brown, M. W., Burki, F., Dunthorn, M., Hampl, V., Heiss, A., Hoppenrath, M., Lara, E., le Gall, L., Lynn, D. H., McManus, H., Mitchell, E. A. D., Mozley-Stanridge, S. E., Parfrey, L. W., Pawlowski, J., Rueckert, S., Shadwick, L., Schoch, C. L., Smirnov, A. and Spiegel, F. W. (2012), The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 59: 429–514. doi: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x, [3].

Eukaryota Chatton, 1925

[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [4].

Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Rhizaria on Wikimedia Commons.