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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Hacrobia
Phylum: Heliozoa
Classis: Centrohelea
Ordo: Centrohelida


Centrohelea Cavalier-Smith, 1993

Similar groups


  • Protist classification at micro*scope, May 2001. (CC)
  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith: Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39: 338–348 (2003).



Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla

Kingdom Protozoa
Parvkingdom: Actinopoda
Phylum: Heliozoa Haeckel, 1866 emend. stat. nov. Margulis, 1974

Cavalier-Smith (2002)[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa

Kingdom: Protozoa
Subkingdom: Gymnomyxa
Infrakingdom: Rhizaria

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [1].

Cavalier-Smith et al. (2015)[edit]

Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista, [2].

Kingdom Chromista Cavalier-Smith, 1981