Monera

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Name[edit]

1. Monera Haeckel, 1866

2. Monera sensu Copeland, 1938, Barkley, 1939, 1949, Stanier & van Niel, 1941, Whittaker, 1959

Classifications[edit]

Haeckel (1866, I)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 1, pp. 206-220.

Haeckel (1866, II)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 2. See also plate 1, "Monophyletischer Stammbaum der Organismen", [1].

Haeckel (1868a)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [2]. See Dayrat (2003), [3].

  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • “Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Pflanzenreichs" [p. 382]
    • Fucoideae
    • Florideae
    • Archephyceae
    • Archephyta [paraphyletic] + Chlorophyceae [polyphyletic] + Cormophyta
    • Lichenes
    • Fungi


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Thierreichs" [p. 392]
    • Acephalae
    • Spongiae
    • Colelminthes
    • Acineta
    • Archezoa [paraphyletic] + Infusoria
    • Ciliata
    • Platyelminthes
    • Himatega
    • Nematelminthes


  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [4]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Plantae
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) +Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64–144, [5]. See p. 122, 129-134.

Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

Protista

  • Monera
    • Gymnomonera (Protamaeba, Protogenes, Myxodictyum)
    • Lepomonera (Protomonas, Protomyxa, Vampyrella, Myxastrum)
  • Flagellata
  • Labyrinthulea (Labyrinthulae)
  • Diatomea
  • Phycochromacea
  • Fungi (Mycetes)
  • Myxomycetes
  • Protoplasta
  • Noctilucae
  • Rhizopoda

Haeckel (1878)[edit]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [6].

Protista [p. 86-104]

Haeckel (1889)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [7]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha (Phytocytoda)
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
  • Thierreich

Haeckel (1894-1896)[edit]

Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [8].


[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

Pflanzen

  • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
    • Archephyta (Progonella)
      • Probiontes
      • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
    • Algariae (Paulosporata)
      • Paulotomeae
      • Conjugatae
      • Diatomeae
    • Algettae (Zoosporata)
      • Mastigota
      • Melethallia
      • Siphoneae
  • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]

Thieren

  • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
    • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
      • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
        • Coccillida
        • Bacillida
        • Spirillida
      • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
        • Lobomonera
        • Rhizomonera
    • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
    • Rhizopoda
    • Infusoria
  • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)

Haeckel (1904)[edit]

Die Lebenswunder, 1st ed., 1904, [9]. English translation: The wonders of life, 1904, [10].

Monera

  • Chromacea
  • Bacteria
  • Rhizomonera

Copeland (1938)[edit]

Copeland, H. F. The kingdoms of organisms. The Quarterly Review Of Biology Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1938), pp. 383-420, [11].

Barkley (1939)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. (1939). Keys to the phyla of organisms. Missoula, Montana, [12].

Stanier & van Niel (1941)[edit]

Stanier, R. Y., and van Niel, C. B. 1941. The main outlines of bacterial classification. J. Bact., 42, 437-466, [13].

  • Kingdom Monera
    • Division Myxophyta
    • Division Schizomycetaea
      • Class Eubacteriae
        • Order Rhodobacteriales
        • Order Eubacteriales
        • Order Actinomycetales
      • Class Myxobacteriae
        • Order Myxobacteriales
      • Class Sphirochaetae
        • Order Sphirochaetales
  • Appendix
    • Filamentous unsheathed organisms
      • Family Leptotrichaceae
      • Family Crenothricaceae
    • Unicellular organisms multiplying by transverse fission
      • Family Achromatiaae
    • Unicellular organisms multiplying by longitudinal fission, or budding, or both
      • Family Pasteuriaceae

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [14].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
    • Schizophyta
      • Schizomycophyta (Myxothallophyta)
        • Vireae (Viriphyta)
          • Bacteriophagales (Zoophagi, Phytophagi)
          • Rickettsiales
        • Schyzomycetes (Eubacteriae)
          • Eubacteriales
          • Actinomycetales
          • Rhodobacteriales
          • Pasteuriales
        • Spirochaetae
          • Spirochaetales
      • Cyanophyta
        • Myxobacteriae
          • Myxobacteriales
        • Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae, Schizophyceae, Phycochromaceae)
          • Beggiatoales
          • Coccogonales (Chroococcales)
          • Chaemosiphonales
          • Hormogoniales
  • Protista
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Whittaker (1969)[edit]

New Concepts of Kingdoms of Organisms, [15].

  • Kingdom Monera
    • Branch Myxomonera
      • Phylum Cyanophyta
      • Phylum Myxobacteriae
    • Branch Mastigomonera
      • Phylum Eubacteriae
      • Phylum Actinomycota
      • Phylum Spirochaetae
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Animalia

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [16], [17]. See Brands (1989-2005 ), [18] Superkingdom Prokaryotae

  • Kingdom Virus
    • Bacterial Viruses
    • Plant viruses
    • Vertebrate viruses
    • Invertebrate viruses
  • Kingdom Monera
    • Division Bacteria (Haeckel, 1894)
    • Division Cyanophycota
    • Division Prochlorophycota (Lewin, 1976)

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Kingdoms & Domains, 4th ed.

Superkingdom Prokarya

  • Kingdom Bacteria (Prokaryotae, Procaryotae, Monera)
    • Subkingdom or domain Archaea (= Archaebacteria)
    • Subkingdom or domain Eubacteria

Shipunov (2009)[edit]

Systema Naturae or the outline of living world classification, [19].

Regnum Monera

  • Subregnum Bacteria
  • Subregnum Archaebacteria

See also[edit]