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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protozoa
Subregnum: Sarcomastigota
Phylum: Choanozoa
Classis: Choanoflagellatea
Ordines: Choanoflagellida – Acanthoecida


Choanoflagellatea Cavalier-Smith, 1998


  • Craspedmonadina Stein, 1878
  • Choanoflagellata Kent, 1880
  • Craspedomonadaceae Senn, 1900
  • Craspedophyceae Chadefaud, 1960
  • Craspédomonadophycidées Bourrelly, 1968
  • Craspedomonadophyceae Hibberd, 1976
  • Choanomonadea Krylov et al., 1980
  • Choanoflagellida Levine et al., 1980, Lee et al., 1985
  • Choanociliata Cavalier-Smith, 1981
  • Choanomastigota Buck, 1990
  • Choanoflagellea Cavalier-Smith, 1997
  • Choanomonada Adl et al., 2005

Alternative classifications[edit]

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Kingdom Protista
Assemblage "Choanoflagellates"
Phylum Choanoflagellata Kent, 1880
Synonym Craspedomonadophyceae

Buck in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Buck, K.R., 1990. 14c. Phylum Zoomastigina, Class Choanomastigotes (Choanoflagellates). In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 194-199. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [1].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Phylum Choanozoa
Class Choanomonadea Krylov et al., 1980 (syn. Craspedophyceae Chadefaud, 1960, Craspedomonadophyceae Hibberd, 1976)
Order Choanoflagellida Kent, 1880 emend. Hibberd, 1983

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes

In Opisthokonts
Clade Choanoflagellates

Leadbeater & Thomsen, in Lee at al. (2000)[edit]

Leadbeater, B.S.C. & Thomsen, H.A. 2000. Order Choanoflagellida. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 14-38, [2]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [3].

In “protozoa”, "related to multicellular groups"

Cavalier-Smith (2002)[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa

In phylum Choanozoa
Class Choanoflagellatea

Leonel Mendoza, John W. Taylor, Libero Ajello (2002)[edit]

From The Class Mesomycetozoea: A Heterogeneous Group of Microorganisms at the Animal-Fungus Boundary

In phylum Neomonada, subphylum Mesomycetozoa
Class Choanoflagellatea

Nitsche et al. (2011)[edit]

Nitsche, F., Carr, M., Arndt, H., & Leadbeater, B. S. (2011). Higher level taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics of the Choanoflagellatea. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 58(5), 452-462.

Class Choanoflagellatea Cavalier-Smith, 1998 emend

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

From The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [4].


Budd & Jensen (2015)[edit]

Budd, G. E. & Jensen, S. (2015). The origin of the animals and a ‘Savannah’ hypothesis for early bilaterian evolution. Biological Reviews. doi: 10.1111/brv.12239.



  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998. Neomonada and the origin of animals and fungi. In: Coombs, G.H., Vickerman, K., Sleigh, M.A., Warren, A. (ed.) Evolutionary relationships among protozoa. Kluwer, London, pp. 375–407.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2003. Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338–348.
  • Nitsche, F., Carr, M., Arndt, H., & Leadbeater, B. S. (2011). Higher level taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics of the Choanoflagellatea. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 58(5), 452-462, [5].
  • Richter, D.J., Nitsche, F. (2016). Choanoflagellatea. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 1-19. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32669-6_5-1


Vernacular names[edit]

English: Choanoflagellates
français: Choanoflagellés
português: Coanoflagelados
中文: 领鞭毛纲