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Protoctista Hogg, 1860


[Note: Protoctista definitions are currently considered poly- or paraphyletic, and taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Hogg (1860)[edit]

Hogg, J. (1860). On the distinctions of a Plant and an Animal and on a Fourth Kingdom of Nature. Edinburgh New Phil. J., N.S. 12: 216–225 [1].

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [2].

Kozo-Poljanskij (1949)[edit]

Kozo-Poljanskij, B. M. (1949). K modernizacii sistemy rastitelnogo mira. Trudy voronezsk. gosud. Univ. 15: 76–129.

Козо-Полянский, Б. М. (1949). К модернизации системы растительного мира. Тр. Воронежск. Гос. унив., т. XV, Сб. работ, посв, 30-летию Великой Окт. соц. рев.: 76—129, [3].

Rothmaler (1951)[edit]

Rothmaler, Werner. (1951). Die Abteilungen und Klassen der Pflanzen. Feddes Rep Spec Nov Reg Veg 3: 256–266, [4], [5].

Copeland (1956)[edit]

Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, [6].

Margulis (1974a)[edit]

Margulis, L. (1974a). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78, [7].

Margulis (1974b)[edit]

Margulis, L. (1974b). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [8].

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)[edit]

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

Margulis & Schwartz (1982)[edit]

Margulis, L. & Schwartz, K.V. (1982). Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. 1st ed. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco and N.Y. 339 p. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [9].

Margulis & Sagan (1985)[edit]

Margulis, L., & Sagan, D. (1985). Order amidst animalcules: the Protoctista kingdom and its undulipodiated cells. BioSystems, 18(2), 141-147, [10]. See also Heywood & Rothschild (1987), [11].

Kingdom Protoctista

Margulis & Schwartz (1988)[edit]

Margulis, L. & Schwartz, K.V. (1988). Five Kingdoms. 2nd ed. Freeman, New York, 376 p. See Kussakin & Drozdov (1994), [12].

Kingdom Protoctista

Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

From Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, 1990. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [13].

Kingdom Protoctista (Hogg, 1861) Margulis & Schwartz, 1988

Margulis (1996)[edit]

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [14].

Kingdom Protoctista

Margulis & Schwartz (1998)[edit]

Margulis, L. & Schwartz, K.V. (1998). Five Kingdoms. 3rd ed. Freeman, New York, [15].

Superkingdom Eukarya

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Margulis, L., M.J. Chapman. Kingdoms and Domains: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth. 4th ed. Amsterdam: Academic Press/Elsevier, 2009.

Margulis et al. (2012)[edit]

Margulis et al. (eds.) Handbook of Protoctista, 2nd edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, 2012, [16]. [not published, see Archibald et al. (2016) in Protista.]

See also[edit]