Protista

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Nuvola apps important.svg The status, affinity, scope or nomenclature of this taxon is disputed.

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Ammonia beccarii, Elphidium excavatum clavatum, Buccella frigida, Eggerella advena

Taxonavigation[edit]

Main Page
Regnum: Protista
Subregna: Biciliata - Sarcomastigota - Incertae sedis Protista

Name[edit]

Protista Haeckel, 1866

Classifications[edit]

[Note: Protista is currently considered a paraphyletic or polyphyletic taxon, and taxonomists prefer to use only monophyletic taxa. See Eukaryota for more modern classifications of the groups previously placed here.]

Haeckel (1866, I)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 1, pp. 206-220.

Haeckel (1866, II)[edit]

Generelle morphologie der organismen, Bd. 2. See also plate 1, "Monophyletischer Stammbaum der Organismen", [1].


Haeckel (1868a)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [2]. See Dayrat (2003), [3].


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Pflanzenreichs" [p. 382]
    • Fucoideae
    • Florideae
    • Archephyceae
    • Archephyta [paraphyletic] + Chlorophyceae [polyphyletic] + Cormophyta
    • Lichenes
    • Fungi


  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum des Thierreichs" [p. 392]
    • Acephalae
    • Spongiae
    • Colelminthes
    • Acineta
    • Archezoa [paraphyletic] + Infusoria
    • Ciliata
    • Platyelminthes
    • Himatega
    • Nematelminthes


  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [4]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Pflanzenreichs
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) + Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64-144, [5]. See p. 122, 129-134. Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

Protista

  • Monera
    • Gymnomonera (Protamaeba, Protogenes, Myxodictium)
    • Lepomonera (Protomonas, Protomyxa, Vampyrella, Myxastrum)
  • Flagellata
  • Labyrinthulea (Labyrinthulae)
  • Diatomea
  • Phycochromacea
  • Fungi (Mycetes)
    • Phycomycetes (Saprolegnieae, Mucorinae etc.)
    • Hypodermiae (Uredineae, Ustilagineae etc.)
    • Basidiomycetes (Hymenomycetes, Gastromycetes etc.)
    • Ascomycetes (Protomycetes, Discomytes etc.)
  • Myxomycetes
  • Protoplasta
  • Noctilucae
  • Rhizopoda

Haeckel (1878)[edit]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [6].

Protista [p. 86-104]

Entz (1888)[edit]

From Studien über Protisten, [7].

Protisten

  • Gregarinen
  • Rhizopoden
  • Flagellaten
  • Noctilucen
  • Ciliaten

Haeckel (1889)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [8]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
    • Thallota (Thallophyta)
      • Algae (Phycophyta)
        • Zygnemaceae
        • Conferveae
        • Fucoideae
        • Florideae
        • Characeae
      • Fungi (Inophyta)
        • Mycetes
        • Lichenes
    • Prothallota (Mesophyta)
      • Bryophyta
      • Pteridophyta
    • Phanerogamae (Anthophyta)
      • Gymnospermae
        • Cycadeae
        • Coniferae
        • Gnetaceae
      • Angiospermae
        • Monocotylae
        • Dicotylae
  • Thierreich
    • Coelenteria (Coelenterata, Zoophyta, Anaemaria)
      • Gastraeades
      • Spongiae
      • Cnidaria
      • Platodes
    • Coelomaria (Bilaterata, Bilateria, Haemataria)
      • Helminthes
      • Mollusca
      • Echinoderma
      • Articulata
      • Tunicata
      • Vertebrata

Haeckel (1894)[edit]

From Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [9].


[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

  • Pflanzen
    • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
      • Archephyta (Progonella)
        • Probiontes
        • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
      • Algariae (Paulosporata)
        • Paulotomeae
        • Conjugatae
        • Diatomeae
      • Algettae (Zoosporata)
        • Mastigota
        • Melethallia
        • Siphoneae
    • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
      • Thallophyta
        • Algae, [Vol. 1, p. 302]
          • Chlorophyceae
          • Charaphyceae
          • Phaeophyceae
          • Rhodophyceae
        • Mycetes [Vol. 1, p. 316]
          • Ascomycetes (Ascodiomycetes)
          • Basimycetes (Basidiomycetes)
        • Lichenes [Vol. 1, p. 325]
      • Diaphyta [Vol. 1, p. 330]
        • Bryophyta [Vol. 1, p. 336]
        • Pteridophyta
      • Anthophyta
        • Gymnospermae
        • Angiospermae
  • Thieren
    • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
      • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
        • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
          • Coccillida
          • Bacillida
          • Spirillida
        • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
      • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
      • Rhizopoda
      • Infusoria
    • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)
      • Coelenteria (Acoelomia)
        • Gastraeades
        • Spongiae
        • Cnidaria
        • Platodes
      • Bilateria (Coelomaria)
        • Helminthes
        • Mollusca
        • Articulata
        • Echinoderma
        • Tunicata
        • Vertebrata

Copeland (1938)[edit]

Copeland, H. F. The kingdoms of organisms. The Quarterly Review Of Biology Vol. 13, No. 4 (Dec., 1938), pp. 383-420, [10].

Barkley (1939)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. (1939). Keys to the phyla of organisms. Missoula, Montana, [11].

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83-103, [12].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
  • Protista
    • Euthallophyta
      • Rhodophyta
      • Chrysophyta
      • Pyrrophyta
      • Euglenophyta
      • Gonidiophyta
      • Charophyta
      • Phaeophyta
      • Myxophyta
      • Mycophyta
    • Protozoa
      • Sarcodina
      • Foraminifera
      • Actinopoda
      • Fungilli
      • Ciliata
      • Suctoria
      • Mesozoa
    • Parazoa
      • Porifera
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Whittaker (1969)[edit]

From New Concepts of Kingdoms of Organisms, [13].

  • Kingdom Monera
  • Kingdom Protista
    • Phylum Euglenophyta
    • Phylum Chrysophyta
    • Phylum Pyrrophyta
    • Phylum Hyphochytridiomycota
    • Phylum Plasmodiophoromycota
    • Phylum Sporozoa
    • Phylum Cnidosporidia
    • Phylum Zoomastigina
    • Phylum Sarcodina
    • Phylum Ciliophora
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • Kingdom Animalia

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)[edit]

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

[Note: "form-superphyla" or "form-phyla are “frankly polyphyletic groupings”.]

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1981). Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems, 14(3), 461-481, [14].

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Eufungi
    • Kingdom 2. Ciliofungi
    • Kingdom 3. Animalia
    • Kingdom 4. Biliphyta
    • Kingdom 5. Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom 6. Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom 7. Protozoa
    • Kingdom 8. Cryptophyta
    • Kingdom 9. Chromophyta


Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia


Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
      • Phylum Euglenozoa
        • Euglenida
        • Kinetoplastida
    • Kingdom Protozoa
      • Phylum Proterozoa (proteromonads, cyathobodonids, Opalinida)
      • Phylum Dinozoa (dinoflagellates)
      • Phylum Parabasalia (trichomonads and hypermastigids)
      • Phylum Metamonadina (retortomonads, diplomonads, and oxymonads)
      • Phylum Sporozoa (cregarines, coccidlans, and piroplasms)
      • Phylum Infusoria (Ciliophora)
      • Phylum Foraminifera
      • Phylum Sarcodina (amoebae, amoeboflagellates, slime moulds (Mycetozoa), Radiolaria, Heliozoa, Acantharia, Myxosporea, Microsporea)

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [15], [16]. See Brands (1989-2005 ), [17]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

  • Kingdom Virus
  • Kingdom Monera

Superkingdom Eukaryotae

  • Kingdom Plantae
    • Subkingdom Thallobionta
      • Division Rhodophycota
      • Division Chromophycota
      • Division Euglenophycota
      • Division Chlorophycota
      • Division Myxomycota
      • Division Eumycota
    • Subkingdom Embryobionta
    • Genus Echites
  • Kingdom Protista (Haeckel, 1866)
    • Phylum Euprotista [“containing the grat majority of protistans”]
    • Phylum Gymnomyxa
      • Subphylum Mycetozoa
      • Subphylum Plasmodiophorina
      • Subphylum Labyrinthulina
  • Kingdom Animalia 1758
    • Subkingdom Protozoa (Goldfuss,1818)
      • Phylum Sarcomastigophora (Honigberg & Balamuth,1963)
      • Phylum Labyrinthulata
      • Phylum Apicomplexa Levine, 1970
      • Phylum Microspora Sprague, 1977
      • Phylum Myxozoa Grassé, 1970
      • Phylum Ascetospora
      • Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901
    • Subkingdom Phagocytellozoa
      • Phylum Placozoa Grell, 1971
    • Subkingdom Parazoa (Sollas,1884)
      • Phylum Porifera Grant, in Todd, 1836
    • Subkingdom Eumetazoa (Butschli,1910}


[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), [18].]

Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla [19].

Kingdom Protista

de Puytorac et al. (1987)[edit]

From Puytorac, P. de, Grain, J., Mignot, J.P. Précis de protistologie. Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd, 1987. 581 p., [20], [21], [22]. See Fernández-Galiano, 1990, [23].

Protista

Karpov (1990)[edit]

Карпов С.А. (1990). Система протистов. Омск: Изд-во Омского пед, [24].

Karpov S.A. (1990). System of Protists. Mezhvuzovskaia tipograf. Omsk: OmPi (in Russian, with English summary).

Kingdom Protista

Alimov et al. (2000, 2007)[edit]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2000. Protista 1: Handbook on zoology (Протисты 1: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000, 679 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [25].

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2007. Protista 2: Handbook on zoology. (Протисты 2: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2007, 1141 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [26].

[Vol. 1, p. 137:]

Protists

[Vol. 2:]

[Notes:

  • the groups with (3) are treated in vol. 3;
  • some groups of protists not traditional for protozoologists (e.g., Xantophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Hyphochytridia) were not treated in the series.]

Pugachev et al. (2011)[edit]

Pugachev, O. N. ed. (О.Н. Пугачев). 2011. Protista 3: Guide-book on zoology. (Протисты 3: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: KMK Scientific Press, 474 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [27].

Protists (Eukaryota)

[Note: numbers indicate volume in which the groups were treated.]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Thomas Cavalier-Smith: Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338-348 (2003).
  • David J. Patterson: The diversity of eukaryotes, American Naturalist 154, S96-S124 (1999).

Vernacular names[edit]

Afrikaans: Protiste
Alemannisch: Protischte
العربية: طلائعيات
অসমীয়া: প্ৰটিষ্টা
asturianu: Protista
azərbaycanca: İbtidailər
Bahasa Indonesia: Protista
Bahasa Melayu: Protis
বাংলা: প্রোটিস্ট
башҡортса: Протистар
беларуская: Пратысты
беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎: Пратысты
Boarisch: Prótisten
bosanski: Protisti
български: Протиста
català: Protist
čeština: Prvoci / Protisté
corsu: protisti
Cymraeg: Protosoa
dansk: Protozo / Protister / Protist
Deutsch: Protisten
eesti: Protistid
Ελληνικά: Πρώτιστα
English: Protozoa / Protophyta / Protoctista / Protist
español: Protista
Esperanto: Protistoj
euskara: Protista
فارسی: تک‌یاختگان
français: Protistes
한국어: 원생생물
Հայերեն: Միաբջիջներ, Պրոտոզոններ, Պրոտոզոաներ
हिन्दी: प्रोटिस्ट
hrvatski: Protisti
Ido: Protisto
interlingua: Protistas
íslenska: Frumdýr
italiano: Protisti
עברית: פרוטיסטים
ქართული: პროტისტები
қазақша: Споралылар
Kreyòl ayisyen: Pwotis
latviešu: protisti
lea faka-Tonga: Meʻamoʻuimuʻa
Lëtzebuergesch: Protoctista
lietuvių: Protistai
magyar: Véglények, protiszták
македонски: Протисти
മലയാളം: പ്രോട്ടിസ്റ്റ
मराठी: प्रोटिस्टा
Nederlands: Protisten
日本語: 原生生物
Nordfriisk: Uurdiarten
norsk bokmål: Protister
norsk nynorsk: Protistar
occitan: Protista
ភាសាខ្មែរ: បឋមត្ថិកសត្វ
polski: Protisty
português: Protista
پنجابی: پروٹسٹ
română: Protiste
Runa Simi: Ch'ulla kawsaykuq
русский: Протисты / Простейшие
саха тыла: Протистар
සිංහල: ප්‍රෝටිස්ටා රාජධානිය
slovenčina: Prvoky
slovenščina: Protisti
کوردیی ناوەندی: شانشینی پێشەنگییەکان
suomi: Alkueliöt
svenska: Urdjur / Protozoer / Protister
தமிழ்: அதிநுண்ணுயிரி
తెలుగు: ప్రోటిస్టా
ไทย: โปรติสต์
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nguyên sinh
Türkçe: Protista
українська: Найпростіші
اردو: اولانیات
vepsän kel’: Protistad
ייִדיש: פראטיסטן
粵語: 原生生物
Zazaki: Protista
中文: 原生生物
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