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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Alveolata
Phylum: Ciliophora
Subphyla: IntramacronucleataPostciliodesmatophoraCiliophora incertae sedis

Classes (nomen dubium): KinetofragminophoraPolyhymenophora


Ciliophora Doflein, 1901


  • Ciliata Perty, 1852
  • Infusoria sensu Bütschli, 1887-1889
  • Ciliophyceae Rothmaler, 1951


  • Aescht, E. (2001). Catalogue of the generic names of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Denisia 1: 1–350, [1].
  • Bick, H. (1972). Ciliated protozoa: an illustrated guide to the species used as biological indicators in freshwater biology. Geneva: World Health Organization, 198 p., [2].
  • Foissner, W., & Berger, H. (1996). A user‐friendly guide to the ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) commonly used by hydrobiologists as bioindicators in rivers, lakes, and waste waters, with notes on their ecology. Freshwater Biology, 35(2), 375-482, [3].
  • Lynn, D.H. (2016). Ciliophora. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 1-52. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32669-6_23-1
  • Warren, A. 2011. Ciliophora. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2016-03-17

Additional references[edit]


Vernacular names[edit]

беларуская: Інфузорыі
English: Ciliates
eesti: Ripsloomad, Tsiliaadid
français: Ciliés
For more multimedia, look at Ciliophora on Wikimedia Commons.

Alternative classifications[edit]

Perty (1852)[edit]

From Kleinster Lebensformen, [5], [6].

Saville-Kent (1880-1882)[edit]

Saville-Kent, W. (1880-1882). A manual of Infusoria. London, vol. 1 (see p. 211 [7]), vol. 2 and vol. 3.

Sub-kingdom Protozoa

Bütschli (1887-1889)[edit]

Bütschli, O. 1887-89. Dr. H.G. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild: wissenschaftlich dargestellt in Wort und Bild. Erster Band: Protozoa. Abt. III, Infusoria und System der Radiolaria. C.F. Winter: Leipzig, [8].

Phylum Protozoa

Kalberlah & Schoenichen (1900)[edit]

Kalberlah, A. & Schoenichen, W. B. (1900). Eyferth's Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier- und Pflanzenreiches: Naturgeschichte der mikroskopischen Süsswasserbewohner. 3rd ed. Braunschweig: B. Goeritz, [9].

Doflein (1901)[edit]

Doflein, F. (1901). Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1st ed. Further editions: Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde.

Kahl (1930-1935)[edit]

Kahl, A. (1930–35). Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria). In: Die Tierwelt Deutschlands 18, (Ed. F. Dahl). 4 vols. G. Fischer, Jena, [10], [11].

Patterson, D.J. (1978). Kahl's Keys to the Ciliates. Translation of the keys from Wimpertiere oder Ciliata. 1978, University of Bristol, [12].

Fauré-Fremiet (1950)[edit]

Fauré-Fremiet, E. (1950). Morphologie comparée et systèmatique des Ciliés. Bulletin de la Société zoologique de France, 75: 109–122, [13]. See Lynn (2008), [14].

Kudo (1954)[edit]

From Protozoology, 4th ed., [15].

Phylum Protozoa Goldfuss

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

In Phylum Protozoa
Subphylum Ciliophora
Class Ciliatea

Corliss (1979)[edit]

Corliss, J. O. (1979). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literautre, 2nd ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford and New York, 455 pp., [16] (1st ed: 1961, [17]).

Phylum Ciliophora

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Kingdom Protista
Assemblage "Ciliates"
Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901

Dragesco & Dragesco-Kernéis (1986)[edit]

Dragesco, J. & Dragesco-Kernéis, A. 1986. Ciliés libres de l’Afrique intertropicale: introduction a la connaissance et à l’étude des ciliés. Orstom, Paris, [18].

Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901

Foissner & Foissner (1988)[edit]

Foissner, W., & I. Foissner (1988) Stamm: Ciliophora. Catalogus Faunae Austriae, Part Ic. - Osterr. Acad. Wiss., Vienna. 150pp., [19].

Stamm: Ciliophora

Lynn & Small, in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Lynn, D.H. & Small, E.B., 1990. 28. Phylum Ciliophora. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 498-523. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [20].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Kingdom Protozoa, Subkingdom Dictyozoa, Branch Bikonta, Infrakingdom Neozoa, Parvkingdom Alveolata
Superphylum Heterokaryota Hickson, 1903 stat. nov.
Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901 stat. nov. Copeland, 1956 emend. auct.

de Puytorac (1994)[edit]

Puytorac, P. de. (1994). Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. In: P. de Puytorac (Ed.). Traité de zoologie. Infusoires ciliés (Vol. 2, pp. 1-15). Paris: Masson, [21], [22]. See Lynn (2008), [23]


Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life

In Kingdom Protozoa, Subkingdom Neozoa, Infrakingdom Alveolata
Superphylum Heterokaryota Hickson 1903 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1993
Phylum Ciliophora Doflein 1901 stat. nov. Copeland 1956 em. auct.

Lynn & Small, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Lynn, D.H. & Small, E.B. 2000. Phylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 371-656, [24]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [25].

Class Karyorelictea[edit]

In “protozoa”, “alveolates

Class Heterotrichea[edit]

Class Spirotrichea[edit]

Class Litostomatea[edit]

Classs Phyllopharyngea[edit]

Class Nassophorea[edit]

Class Colpodea[edit]

Class Prostomatea[edit]

Class Plagiopylea[edit]

Class Oligohymenophorea[edit]

Hausmann et al. (2003)[edit]

Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

  • Phylum Alveolata Cavalier-Smith, 1992
    • Subphylum Ciliophora Doflein, 1901
      • Superclass Postciliodesmatophora Gerassimova & Seravin, 1976
        • Class Karyorelictea Corliss, 1974
          • Order Protostomatida
          • Order Loxodida
          • Order Protoheterotrichida
        • Class Heterotrichea Stein, 1859
          • Order Licnophorida
          • Order Heterotrichida
      • Superclass Intramacronucleata Lynn, 1996
        • Class Spirotrichea Bütschli, 1889
          • Subclass Protocruziidia Puytorac et al. 1987
          • Subclass Phacodiniidia Small & Lynn, 1985
          • Subclass Hypotrichia Stein, 1859
          • Subclass Oligotrichia Bütschli, 1889
          • Subclass Choreotrichia Small & Lynn, 1985
          • Subclass Stichotrichia Small & Lynn, 1985
        • Class Litostomatea Small & Lynn, 1981
          • Subclass Haptoria Corliss, 1974
          • Subclass Trichostomatia Bütschli, 1889
        • Class Phyllopharyngea de Puytorac, 1974
          • Subclass Phyllopharyngia de Puytorac, 1974
          • Subclass Rhynchodia Chatton & Lwoff, 1937
          • Subclass Chonotrichia Wallengren, 1895
          • Subclass Suctoria Claparede & Lachmann, 1858
        • Class Nassophorea Small & Lynn, 1981
          • Order Synhymeniida de Puytorac et al., 1974
          • Order Nassulida Jankowski, 1967
          • Order Microthoracida Jankowski,1967
        • Class Colpodea Small & Lynn, 1981
        • Class Prostomatea Schewiakoff, 1896
        • Class Plagiopylea Small & Lynn, 1985
        • Class Oligohymenophorea de Puytorac et al., 1974
          • Subclass Peniculia Fauré-Fremiet, 1956.
          • Subclass Scuticociliatia Small, 1967
          • Subclass Hymenostomatia Dellage & Herouard, 1896
          • Subclass Apostomatia Chatton & Lwoff, 1928
          • Subclass Peritrichia Stein, 1859
            • Order Sessilida Kahl, 1933
            • Order Mobilida Kahl, 1933
          • Subclass Astomatia Schewiakoff, 1896
            • Order Clevelandellida de Puytorac & Grain, 1976
            • Order Odontostomatida Sawaya, 1940

Alimov et al. (2007)[edit]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2007. Protista 2: Handbook on zoology. (Протисты 2: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2007, 1141 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [26].


Lynn (2008)[edit]

Lynn, Denis (2008). The Ciliated Protozoa: Characterization, Classification, and Guide to the Literature (3 ed.). Springer. p. 10, [27].

Phylum Ciliophora

Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S. M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [28].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [29].

Gao et al. (2016)[edit]

Gao, Feng, et al. "The All-Data-Based Evolutionary Hypothesis of Ciliated Protists with a Revised Classification of the Phylum Ciliophora (Eukaryota, Alveolata)." Scientific Reports 6 (2016): 24874.