Labyrinthulomycetes

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Heterokonta
Phylum: Bigyra
Subphylum: Sagenista
Classis: Labyrinthulomycetes
Ordines: Labyrinthulida – Thraustochytriida – (Thraustochytrids)

Ordines (in synonymy): Labyrinthulales – Thraustochytriales

Genera (overview): Aplanochytrium – Elina – Japonochytrium – ?Labyrinthodictyon – Labyrinthomyxa – Labyrinthorhiza – Labyrinthula – ?Labyrinthuloides – Oblongichytrium – Phagomyxa – Pseudoplasmodium – Pyrrhosorus – Schizochytrium – Thraustochytrium – Ulkenia

Name[edit]

Labyrinthulomycetes Arx, 1970, Dick, 2001 (ICBN) / Labyrinthulea sensu Olive, 1975, Cavalier-Smith, 1989 (ICZN)

Circumscriptional synonyms

  • Labyrinthulomycota Whittaker, 1969
  • Labyrinthomorpha Page in Levine et al., 1980
  • Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith, 1986
  • Slabyrinthulids Patterson, 1994

References[edit]


Classifications[edit]

Cienkowski (1867)[edit]

Cienkowski, L. (1867). Ueber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Labyrinthuleen. Arch. mikr. Anat., 3:274, [1]

Haeckel (1868a)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [2]. See Dayrat (2003), [3].

  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • “Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia
  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [4]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Plantae
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) +Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64–144, [5]. See p. 122, 129-134.

Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

  • Protista
    • Labyrinthulea (= Labyrinthulae) [p. 122]

Lankester (1877)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. 1877. Notes on the embryology and classification of the animal kingdom: Comprising a revision of speculations relative to the origin and significance of germ layers. Quartely Journal of Microscopical Science, 68:399-454, [6].

  • Animalia
    • Plastidozoa
      • Protozoa
        • Gymnomyxa
          • Labyrinthulida (Labyrinthula, Chlamydomyxa) [p. 442]
    • Enterozoa

Haeckel (1878)[edit]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [7].

  • Protista
    • Labyrinthuleae [p. 94]
      • Labyrinthula vitellina
      • Labyrinthula macrocystis

Lankester (1885, 1891)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. (1885). Article "Protozoa". In: Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.), 19: 830–866, [8].

Lankester, E. R. (1891). Article "Protozoa". In: Zoological Articles Contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, [9].

  • Protozoa
    • Labyrinthulidea

Zopf (1892)[edit]

Zur Kenntniss der Labyrinthuleen, einer Familie der Mycetozoa. In: Beiträge zur Physiologie und Morphologie niederer Organismen. Heft 2 (1892), p. 36, Leipzig, [10].

  • Mycetozoen
    • Ordnung Sorophoren
      • Unterordnung II: Labyrinthuleae Zopf
        • Familie 1: Labyrinthuleen (Cienk.) Zopf

Delage & Hérouard (1896)[edit]

Traité de zoologie concrète, t. 1, p. 79, [11].

  • Protozoa
    • Rhizopodia
      • Mycetozoariae
        • Filoplasmodida vel Labyrinthulida

Doflein (1901)[edit]

Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1st ed, [12].

  • Protozoa
    • Labyrinthulidae

Lister in Lankester (1909)[edit]

Lister, J. J. (1909). Appendix A (Chlamydomyxa & Labyrinthula). In: Lankester, E. R. A treatise on zoology, vol. 1 (1909), [13].

  • Protozoa incertae sedis
    • Labyrinthula

Copeland (1956)[edit]

The classification of lower organisms, [14].

  • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Phylum Protoplasta
      • Family Labyrinthulida [Labyrinthulidae] Haeckel ex Doflein Protozoen 47 (1901)

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris.

  • Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [15]
  • Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [16], [17]


  • Monde vivant
    • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
    • Eucaryotes
      • Algues Eucaryotes (= Phycophytes)
        • Chromophycophytes (= Chromophycées, ou Algues brunes et leurs alliées)
          • Chrysophycées (lato sensu)
            • Chrysophycinées (= Chrysophycées str. sensu, algues brun doré, ou algues brunes)
            • Xanthophycinées (= Xanthophycées, Hétérokontes, ou algues vert jaune)
              • Protozoaires chryso- et xanthoflagellés (incl. Labyrinthulides [= Filoplasmodidés]: Labyrinthorhiza et Labyrinthula)
            • Silicophycinées (= Silicomonadines, ou Silicoflagellés)
            • Craspédophycinées (= Craspédomonadines, ou Choanoflagellés)
            • Bacillariophycinées (= Diatomées)
          • Phéophycées

Levine & Corliss (1963)[edit]

Levine, N. D. & J. O. Corliss (1963). Two new subclasses of sarcodines, Labyrinthulia subcl. nov. and Proteomyxidia subcl. nov. (Abstr.). J. Protozool., 10 (Suppl.), 27.

Class Sarcodina

  • Subclass Labyrinthulia

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

A revised classification of the phylum Protozoa, [18].

Olive (1975)[edit]

Olive, L. (1975). The mycetozoans. Academic Press, New York, [19].

Page in Levine et al. (1980)[edit]

A newly revised classification of the Protozoa, [20].

  • Subkingdom Protozoa
    • Phylum Labyrinthomorpha
      • Class Labyrinthulea
        • Order Labyrinthulida (e.g., Labyrinthula, Thraustochytrium)

Corliss (1984)[edit]

The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla, [21].

  • Kingdom Protista
    • Assemblage "Labyrinthomorphs"
      • Phylum Labyrinthulea Cienkowski, 1867
      • Phylum Thraustochytriacea Sparrow, 1943

Cavalier-Smith (1986)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1986). The kingdom Chromista, origin and systematics. In: Round, F.E. and Chapman, D.J. (eds.). Progress in Phycological Research. 4: 309–347, [22].

Kingdom Chromista

  • Subkingdom Cryptophyta
    • Phylum Cryptophyta
  • Subkingdom Chromophyta
    • Phylum Heterokonta
      • Subphylum Ochrista
      • Subphylum Pseudofungi (= Heterkontimycotina)
        • Superclass Pythiista
          • Class Oomycetes
          • Class Hyphochytrea
        • Superclass Labyrinthista
          • Class Labyrinthulea L.S. Olive ex Caval.-Sm., (1986)
            • Order Thraustochytriales
            • Order Labyrinthulales
    • Phylum Haptophyta

Cavalier-Smith (1989)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith. T. (1989). The Kingdom Chromista. In: J.C. Green et al. (eds). The Chromophyte Algae: problems and Perspectives, pp. 381-407, [23].

  • Kingdom Chromista
    • Subkingdom Cryptista
    • Subkingdom Chromophyta
      • Phylum Heterokonta
        • Subphylum Ochrista
        • Subphylum Bicoecia
        • Subphylum Pseudofungi ("Not now a synonym for Heterokontimycotina Dick 1976.")
          • Class Pythiistea
        • Subphylum Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith 1986. stat. nov.
          • Class Labyrinthulea
            • Subclass 1. Thraustochytridae Cavalier-Smith, 1989
            • Subclass 2. Labyrinthulidae Cavalier-Smith, 1989
      • Phylum Haptomonada

Porter in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Porter, D., 1990. 22. Phylum Labyrinthulomycota. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 388-398. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [24].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [25].

Corliss (1994)[edit]

An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

  • Kingdom Chromista

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

A revised six-kingdom system of life

  • Phylum Sagenista
    • Subphylum Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith 1986 stat. nov. 1989

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

The Diversity of Eukaryotes

Webster (2007)[edit]

Introduction to Fungi, 3rd ed.

  • Straminipila
    • Hyphochytriomycota
    • Labyrinthulomycota (= Labyrinthomorpha, Labyrinthista and Labyrinthulea) (slime nets)
      • Labyrinthulomycetes (= Labyrinthulales)
      • Thraustochytriomycetes (= Thraustochytriales)
    • Oomycota (= Peronosporomycetes)

Anderson & Cavalier-Smith (2012)[edit]

Anderson, O. R., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2012). Ultrastructure of Diplophrys parva, a new small freshwater species, and a revised analysis of Labyrinthulea (Heterokonta). Acta Protozoologica, 51(4), 291-304, [26].

Gomaa et al. (2013)[edit]

Gomaa, F., Mitchell, E. A., & Lara, E. (2013). Amphitremida (Poche, 1913) is a new major, ubiquitous labyrinthulomycete clade. PloS one, 8(1), e53046, [27].

Stramenopiles

Beakes et al. (2014)[edit]

Beakes, G. W., Honda, D. & Thines, M. (2014). Systematics of the Straminipila: Labyrinthulomycota, Hyphochytriomycota and Oomycota. In: McLaughlin, D. J. & Spatafora, J. W. (eds). The Mycota. Vol. VII. Part A. Systematics and Evolution. 2nd ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 39-97, [28].

[Note: names in { } are protistan nomenclatural equivalents used by Anderson & Cavalier-Smtih (2012).]

References[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

čeština: Labyrintuly
Deutsch: Netzschleimpilze, Schleimnetze
English: Slime nets
日本語: ラビリンチュラ
suomi: Labyrinttisienet
українська: Лабіринтуломікотові