Labyrinthulomycetes

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Heterokonta
Phylum: Bigyra
Subphylum: Sagenista
Classis: Labyrinthulomycetes
Ordines: Labyrinthulida – Thraustochytriida – (Thraustochytrids)

Ordines (in synonymy): Labyrinthulales – Thraustochytriales

Genera (overview): Aplanochytrium – Elina – Japonochytrium – ?Labyrinthodictyon – Labyrinthomyxa – Labyrinthorhiza – Labyrinthula – ?Labyrinthuloides – Oblongichytrium – Phagomyxa – Pseudoplasmodium – Pyrrhosorus – Schizochytrium – Thraustochytrium – Ulkenia

Name[edit]

Labyrinthulomycetes Haeckel, Nat. Schöpfungsgesch.: 334. 1868 ("Labyrinthuleae").

Circumscriptional synonyms

  • Labyrinthulomycota Whittaker, 1969
  • Labyrinthomorpha Page in Levine et al., 1980
  • Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith, 1986
  • Slabyrinthulids Patterson, 1994

References[edit]

Primary references[edit]

  • Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. Gemeinverständliche wissenschaftliche Vorträge über die Entwikelungslehre im Allgemeinen und dijenige von Darwin, Goethe und Lamarck im Besonderen, über die Anwendung dersellben uf den Ursprung des Menschen und andere damit zusammenhängende Grundfragen der Naturwissenschaft. Berlin: Georg Reimer. xvi, 568 S. Google Books Reference page

Additional references[edit]


Classifications[edit]

Cienkowski (1867)[edit]

Cienkowski, L. (1867). Ueber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Labyrinthuleen. Arch. mikr. Anat., 3:274, [1]

Haeckel (1868a)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 1st ed. Reimer, Berlin, [2]. See Dayrat (2003), [3].

  • "Polyphyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [p. 347]
    • Plantae
    • “Protista” [polyphyletic]
      • Labyrinthuleae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Diatomeae
      • Monera Neutra
      • Protoplasta
      • Rhizopoda
      • Flagellata
    • Animalia
  • "Einstämmiger oder Monophyletisher Stammbaum der Organismen" [plate I, [4]]
    • Pflanzenreich, Plantae
      • Florideae
      • Fucoideae
      • Chloralgae + Muscinae + Filicinae + Gymnospermae + Angiospermae
      • Lichenes
      • Fungi
    • Protistenreich, Protista
      • Diatomea
      • Labyrinthulae
      • Myxomycetes
      • Monera neutra + Rhizopoda
      • Noctilucae
      • Flagellata
      • Protoplasta
    • Thierreich, Animalia
      • Coelenterata
      • Scolecida
      • Vermes (Scolecida + Colelminthes + Himatega) +Arthropoda + Vertebrata + Mollusca

Haeckel (1868b)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1868. Monographie der Moneren. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Medicin und Naturwissenschaft 4: 64–144, [5]. See p. 122, 129-134.

Translation: Monograph of Monera. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 1869, IX: 27-42, 113-134, 219-232, 327-342.

  • Protista
    • Labyrinthulea (= Labyrinthulae) [p. 122]

Lankester (1877)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. 1877. Notes on the embryology and classification of the animal kingdom: Comprising a revision of speculations relative to the origin and significance of germ layers. Quartely Journal of Microscopical Science, 68:399-454, [6].

  • Animalia
    • Plastidozoa
      • Protozoa
        • Gymnomyxa
          • Labyrinthulida (Labyrinthula, Chlamydomyxa) [p. 442]
    • Enterozoa

Haeckel (1878)[edit]

Haeckel, E., 1878. Das Protistenreich. Eine Populäre Uebersicht über das Formengebiet der Niedersten Lebewesen. Ernst Günther's Verlag, Leipzig, 104 pp, [7].

  • Protista
    • Labyrinthuleae [p. 94]
      • Labyrinthula vitellina
      • Labyrinthula macrocystis

Lankester (1885, 1891)[edit]

Lankester, E. R. (1885). Article "Protozoa". In: Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th ed.), 19: 830–866, [8].

Lankester, E. R. (1891). Article "Protozoa". In: Zoological Articles Contributed to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, [9].

  • Protozoa
    • Labyrinthulidea

Zopf (1892)[edit]

Zur Kenntniss der Labyrinthuleen, einer Familie der Mycetozoa. In: Beiträge zur Physiologie und Morphologie niederer Organismen. Heft 2 (1892), p. 36, Leipzig, [10].

  • Mycetozoen
    • Ordnung Sorophoren
      • Unterordnung II: Labyrinthuleae Zopf
        • Familie 1: Labyrinthuleen (Cienk.) Zopf

Delage & Hérouard (1896)[edit]

Traité de zoologie concrète, t. 1, p. 79, [11].

  • Protozoa
    • Rhizopodia
      • Mycetozoariae
        • Filoplasmodida vel Labyrinthulida

Doflein (1901)[edit]

Die Protozoen als Parasiten und Krankheitserreger, 1st ed, [12].

  • Protozoa
    • Labyrinthulidae

Lister in Lankester (1909)[edit]

Lister, J. J. (1909). Appendix A (Chlamydomyxa & Labyrinthula). In: Lankester, E. R. A treatise on zoology, vol. 1 (1909), [13].

  • Protozoa incertae sedis
    • Labyrinthula

Copeland (1956)[edit]

The classification of lower organisms, [14].

  • Kingdom Protoctista
    • Phylum Protoplasta
      • Family Labyrinthulida [Labyrinthulidae] Haeckel ex Doflein Protozoen 47 (1901)

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris.

  • Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [15]
  • Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [16], [17]


  • Monde vivant
    • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
    • Eucaryotes
      • Algues Eucaryotes (= Phycophytes)
        • Chromophycophytes (= Chromophycées, ou Algues brunes et leurs alliées)
          • Chrysophycées (lato sensu)
            • Chrysophycinées (= Chrysophycées str. sensu, algues brun doré, ou algues brunes)
            • Xanthophycinées (= Xanthophycées, Hétérokontes, ou algues vert jaune)
              • Protozoaires chryso- et xanthoflagellés (incl. Labyrinthulides [= Filoplasmodidés]: Labyrinthorhiza et Labyrinthula)
            • Silicophycinées (= Silicomonadines, ou Silicoflagellés)
            • Craspédophycinées (= Craspédomonadines, ou Choanoflagellés)
            • Bacillariophycinées (= Diatomées)
          • Phéophycées

Levine & Corliss (1963)[edit]

Levine, N. D. & J. O. Corliss (1963). Two new subclasses of sarcodines, Labyrinthulia subcl. nov. and Proteomyxidia subcl. nov. (Abstr.). J. Protozool., 10 (Suppl.), 27.

Class Sarcodina

  • Subclass Labyrinthulia

Honigberg et al. (1964)[edit]

A revised classification of the phylum Protozoa, [18].

Olive (1975)[edit]

Olive, L. (1975). The mycetozoans. Academic Press, New York, [19].

Page in Levine et al. (1980)[edit]

A newly revised classification of the Protozoa, [20].

  • Subkingdom Protozoa
    • Phylum Labyrinthomorpha
      • Class Labyrinthulea
        • Order Labyrinthulida (e.g., Labyrinthula, Thraustochytrium)

Corliss (1984)[edit]

The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla, [21].

  • Kingdom Protista
    • Assemblage "Labyrinthomorphs"
      • Phylum Labyrinthulea Cienkowski, 1867
      • Phylum Thraustochytriacea Sparrow, 1943

Cavalier-Smith (1986)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1986). The kingdom Chromista, origin and systematics. In: Round, F.E. and Chapman, D.J. (eds.). Progress in Phycological Research. 4: 309–347, [22].

Kingdom Chromista

  • Subkingdom Cryptophyta
    • Phylum Cryptophyta
  • Subkingdom Chromophyta
    • Phylum Heterokonta
      • Subphylum Ochrista
      • Subphylum Pseudofungi (= Heterkontimycotina)
        • Superclass Pythiista
          • Class Oomycetes
          • Class Hyphochytrea
        • Superclass Labyrinthista
          • Class Labyrinthulea L.S. Olive ex Caval.-Sm., (1986)
            • Order Thraustochytriales
            • Order Labyrinthulales
    • Phylum Haptophyta

Cavalier-Smith (1989)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith. T. (1989). The Kingdom Chromista. In: J.C. Green et al. (eds). The Chromophyte Algae: problems and Perspectives, pp. 381-407, [23].

  • Kingdom Chromista
    • Subkingdom Cryptista
    • Subkingdom Chromophyta
      • Phylum Heterokonta
        • Subphylum Ochrista
        • Subphylum Bicoecia
        • Subphylum Pseudofungi ("Not now a synonym for Heterokontimycotina Dick 1976.")
          • Class Pythiistea
        • Subphylum Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith 1986. stat. nov.
          • Class Labyrinthulea
            • Subclass 1. Thraustochytridae Cavalier-Smith, 1989
            • Subclass 2. Labyrinthulidae Cavalier-Smith, 1989
      • Phylum Haptomonada

Porter in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Porter, D., 1990. 22. Phylum Labyrinthulomycota. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 388-398. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [24].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [25].

Corliss (1994)[edit]

An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

  • Kingdom Chromista

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

A revised six-kingdom system of life

  • Phylum Sagenista
    • Subphylum Labyrinthista Cavalier-Smith 1986 stat. nov. 1989

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

The Diversity of Eukaryotes

Webster (2007)[edit]

Introduction to Fungi, 3rd ed.

  • Straminipila
    • Hyphochytriomycota
    • Labyrinthulomycota (= Labyrinthomorpha, Labyrinthista and Labyrinthulea) (slime nets)
      • Labyrinthulomycetes (= Labyrinthulales)
      • Thraustochytriomycetes (= Thraustochytriales)
    • Oomycota (= Peronosporomycetes)

Anderson & Cavalier-Smith (2012)[edit]

Anderson, O. R., & Cavalier-Smith, T. (2012). Ultrastructure of Diplophrys parva, a new small freshwater species, and a revised analysis of Labyrinthulea (Heterokonta). Acta Protozoologica, 51(4), 291-304, [26].

Gomaa et al. (2013)[edit]

Gomaa, F., Mitchell, E. A., & Lara, E. (2013). Amphitremida (Poche, 1913) is a new major, ubiquitous labyrinthulomycete clade. PloS one, 8(1), e53046, [27].

Stramenopiles

Beakes et al. (2014)[edit]

Beakes, G. W., Honda, D. & Thines, M. (2014). Systematics of the Straminipila: Labyrinthulomycota, Hyphochytriomycota and Oomycota. In: McLaughlin, D. J. & Spatafora, J. W. (eds). The Mycota. Vol. VII. Part A. Systematics and Evolution. 2nd ed. Springer Verlag, Berlin, p. 39-97, [28].

[Note: names in { } are protistan nomenclatural equivalents used by Anderson & Cavalier-Smtih (2012).]

Bennett et al. (2017)[edit]

Bennett, R. M., Honda, D., Beakes, G. W. & Thines M. (2017). Labyrinthulomycota. In: Archibald, J. M., Simpson A. G. B., Slamovits, C. H. (eds) Handbook of the Protists Springer International Publishing, p. 507 - 542, [29].

note: names with " " are provisional and requires deep phylogenetic study.

References[edit]

  • Arx, J. A. von. 1970. The Genera of Fungi Sporulating in Pure Culture. Lehre, Germany: J. Cramer, [30].
  • Bennett, R.M.; Honda, D.; Beakes, G.W.; Thines, M. 2017. Labyrinthulomycota. In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 507-542. [31].
  • Dick, M.W. 2001. Straminipilous Fungi. Springer. ISBN 0792367804.
  • Porter, David. 2005. Labyrinthulomycetes. Version 01 January 2005 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Labyrinthulomycetes/21791/2005.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/
  • Whittaker, R. H. 1969. New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Science 163 (3863): 150–160, [32].

Vernacular names[edit]

čeština: Labyrintuly
Deutsch: Netzschleimpilze, Schleimnetze
English: Slime nets
suomi: Labyrinttisienet
日本語: ラビリンチュラ
українська: Лабіринтуломікотові