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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Rhizaria
Clade: Retaria
Phylum: Foraminifera
Classis: Xenophyophorea
Ordines: Psamminida - Stannomida


Xenophyophorea Schulze, 1904

Alternative classifications[edit]

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla

In Kingdom Protista, Assemblage "Rhizopods" incertae sedis
Phylum Xenophyophora Schulze, 1904

Tendal in Margulis et al. (1990)[edit]

Tendal, Ø.S., 1990. 10. Phylum Xenophyophora. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 135-138. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [1].

Kingdom Protoctista

Cavalier-Smith (1993)[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Kingdom Protozoa, Subkingdom Dictyozoa, Branch Bikonta, Infrakingdom Neozoa, Parvkingdom Neosarcodina incertae sedis
Class Xenophyophorea Schulze, 1904

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The Diversity of Eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Xenophyophores

Gooday & Tendal, in Lee et al. (2000)[edit]

Gooday, A.J. & Tendal, O.S., 2000. Class Xenophyophorea Schulze, 1904. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 1086-1097, [2]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [3].

In “protozoa”, “amoeboid protists


  • Protist classification at micro*scope, May 2001. (CC)
  • Araya, J.F & Gooday, A. 2018. First record of a Xenophyophore (Rhizaria: Foraminifera) on the Chilean margin. Zootaxa 4455(3): 589–592. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4455.3.16 Paywall Reference page
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, Europ. J. Protistol. 39, 338-348 (2003).
  • Schulze, F.E. 1904. Uber den Bau und die Entwicklung gewisser Tiefsee-Organismen. Sber. preuss. Akad. Wiss. 53: 1387. (Abstract).
  • Tendal, O.S. 1996. Synoptic checklist and bibliography of the Xenophyophorea (Protista), with a zoogeographical survey of the group, Galthea Rep., v. 17, p. 79-101, [4].