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Various eukaryotes.
Eukaryote cells.


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regna (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): AnimaliaPlantaeFungiProtista
Regna (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): AnimaliaPlantaeFungiChromistaProtozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): BikontaUnikonta
Groups (Adl et al., 2012): AmoebozoaOpisthokontaExcavataSar (StramenopilesAlveolataRhizaria) – ArchaeplastidaIncertae sedis
Regna (Ruggiero et al., 2015): ProtozoaChromistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia


Eucaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938, Chadefaud, 1960


  • Karyonta Novák, 1930
  • Eukaryonta Fott, 1959 (according to Round, 1973), Möhn, 1984
  • Eucaryota Christensen, 1962, Allsopp, 1969
  • Eucaryotae Murray, 1968
  • Caryonta Novák, 1969
  • Eukaryota Fott, 1971, Stent, 1971, Margulis, 1974, Whittaker & Margulis, 1978
  • Eucytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Eukaryotae Parker et al., 1982 [?]
  • Eucarya Woese et. al., 1990
  • Eukarya Margulis, 1996 (not Dougherty, 1957, see Sapp, 2005)

Alternative classifications

Chatton (1925)

Chatton, É. 1925. Pansporella perplexa, amoebien à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5–84, Online. See Kussakin Drozdov (1994), [1], Katscher (2004), [2].

[p. 76ː]

[p. 77ː]

Copeland (1956)

Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, [6].

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [3]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [4], [5].

Monde vivant

Jeffrey (1971)

Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands, [6].

  • Superkingdom Acytota
  • Superkingdom Procytota
  • Superkingdom Eucytota
    • Kingdom Rhodobiota
    • Kingdom Chromobiota
    • Kingdom Zoobiota
    • Kingdom Mycobiota
    • Kingdom Chlorobiota

Margulis (1971)

Margulis, L. 1971. Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis. Evolution 25: 242-245.

Leedale (1974)

Leedale, G. F. (1974). How many are the kingdoms of organisms? Taxon, 23 (1974), pp. 261–270, [7]. See Whittaker in Kreir (1977), Google Books.

[“Pteropod” scheme, p. 267:]

[“Fan” scheme, p. 269:]

Margulis (1974a)

Margulis, L. (1974a). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78, [8].

Margulis (1974b)

Margulis, L. (1974b). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [9].

Edwards (1976)

Edwards, P. (1976). A classification of plants into higher taxa based on cytological and biochemical criteria. Taxon 25: 529–542.

Whittaker & Margulis (1978)

Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.

Cavalier-Smith (1978)

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1978. The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems, 10(1), 93-114.

Stewart & Mattox (1980)

Stewart, K.D. & Mattox, K. (1980). Phylogeny of phytoflagellates. In: Phytoflagellates (ed. E.Cox), New York: Elsevier/North Holland, pp. 433–462, [10], [11].

Eukaryotes [p. 456]

Cavalier-Smith (1981)

Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]

Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Fungi (Ciliofungi + Eufungi)
    • Kingdom 2. Chromista (Cryptophyta + Chromophyta)
    • Kingdom 3. Plantae (Viridiplantae + Biliphyta)
    • Kingdom 4. Protista (Euglenozoa + Protozoa)
    • Kingdom 5. Animalia

Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]

  • Superkingdom Eukaryota
    • Kingdom Fungi
    • Kingdom Viridiplantae
      • Phylum Chlorophyta
      • Phylum Bryophyta
      • Phylum Tracheophyta
    • Kingdom Biliphyta
      • Phylum Biliphyta
        • Class Rhodophyceae
        • Class Glaocophyceae
    • Kingdom Chromista
    • Kingdom Animalia
    • Kingdom Euglenozoa
    • Kingdom Protozoa

Parker et al. (1982)

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [12], [13]. See Brands (1989-2005), [14]

[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), PDF.]

Cavalier-Smith (1983)

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1983. A 6-kingdom classification and a unified phylogeny. Pp. 1027–1034 in Endocytobiology II (H.E.A. Schenk & W. Schwemmler, eds.). De Gruyter, Berlin, [15], [16].

Möhn (1984)

From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [17], [18].

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Lipscomb (1985)

Lipscomb, Diana. 1985. The eukaryotic kingdoms. Cladistics 1: 127–40.


[Note: some eukaryote groups are not included in Lipscomb analysis.]

Corliss (1986)

From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.

Superkingdom Eukaryota

Starobogatoff (1986)

Старобогатов Я.И. К вопросу о числе царств эукариотных организмов. // Труды Зоологического института АН СССР. 1986. T. 144. С. 4–25.

Starobogatoff, Y.I. 1986. On the number of kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 144: 4–25. (In Russian) From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [19].


Lipscomb (1989)

Lipscomb, D. (1989). Relationships among the eukaryotes. In: The Hiearchy of Life, B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, & H. Jornvall (eds.), Elsevier, New York. pp. 161-178, [20]. From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [21].


  • Rhodophyca
  • Supergroup 1
    • Plantae
    • Supergroup 2
      • Cryptomonada
      • Supergroup 3
        • Amebae+Oomycota+Chromobiota+Heliozoa
        • Supergroup 4
          • Polymastigota
          • Animalia+(Choanozoa+Fungi)
          • Opalinida+Dinociliata+Euglenaria

Woese (1990)

3-Domain System of Carl Woese

Lipscomb (1991)

Lipscomb, D. (1991). Broad classification: the kingdoms and the protozoa. In: Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. J.P. Kreier & J.R. Baker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 81-136, [22].


Corliss (1994)

From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.

Empire Eukaryota

Kussakin & Drozdov (1994)

Кусакин О.Г, Дроздов А.Л. 1994. Филема органического мира. Часть 1. Пролегомены к построению филемы. С.-Петербург: Наука, [23].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1994). Phylema of the living beings. Part 1. Prolegomena to the construction of phylema. Nauka, St.-Petersburg. (In Russian)

Cavalier-Smith (1995)

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1995. Zooflagellate phylogeny and classification. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology [Tsitologiia] 37(11): 1010–1029, Online.


Starobogatov (1995)

Starobogatov, Y. I. (1995). The position of flagellated protists in the system of lower eukaryotes. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology, 37 (11): 1030–7, [24]. Also in: Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Free-living Heterotrophic Flagellates: 14th – 20th August 1994 – St. Petersburg, Russia. Europ. J. Protistol. 31, 109-118, [25].


Margulis (1996)

From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life [26].

Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)

Hausmann & Hülsmann (1996)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. 2nd ed. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [27], [28].

Empire Eukaryota

Cavalier-Smith (1998)

From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [29].

  • Empire or Superkingdom 1. Prokaryota
  • Empire or Superkingdom 2. Eukaryota
    • Kingdom 1. Protozoa Kussakin, O.G., Drozdov, A.L. 1998. Phylema of the living beings. Part 2. Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes. Nauka, St.-Petersburg. (in Russian)

Patterson (1999)

Hausmann et al. (2003)

From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. 3rd ed. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith (2003)

From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [30].


Cavalier-Smith (2004)

From Only six kingdoms of life, [31].

Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)

Adl et al. (2005)

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [32].


Lecointre & Le Guyader (2006)

Lecointre, G. & Le Guyader, H. Classification phylogénétique du vivant, 3e éd., Belin, Paris, 2006, [33].

Le vivant

Cavalier-Smith (2009)

From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.


[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]

Cavalier-Smith (2010)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [34].


Luketa (2012)

Luketa, S. (2012). New views on the megaclassification of life. Protistology, 7(4), 218-237.

Dominium Eukaryobiota

Adl et al. (2012)

Adl, S.M. et al. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59(5): 429–514, PDF. Erratum: Online.


Cavalier-Smith (2013)

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2013). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa Eur. J. Protistol. 49, pp. 115–178, Onlie.

Brown et al. (2013)

Brown, M.W., Sharpe, S.C., Silberman, J.D., Heiss, A.A., Lang, B.F., Simpson, A.G.B., Roger, A.J. (2013). Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads. Proc Biol Sci 280(1769):20131755, Online.


Pawlowski (2013)

Pawlowski, J. 2013. The new micro-kingdoms of eukaryotes. BMC Biol 11:40, Online.


Paps (2013)

Paps, J., Medina-Chacón, L. A., Marshall, W., Suga, H., & Ruiz-Trillo, I. 2013. Molecular phylogeny of unikonts: new insights into the position of apusomonads and ancyromonads and the internal relationships of opisthokonts. Protist 164(1), 2-12.


Boudouresque (2015)

Boudouresque, C. F. 2015. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Unicellular Eukaryotes. In: Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 191–257). Springer: Netherlands, Google Books.


Eukaryotes [alternative classification]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)

Derelle et al. (2015)

Derelle, R., Torruella, G., Klimeš, V., Brinkmann, H., Kim, E., Vlček, Č., Lang, B.F. & Eliáš, M. 2015. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. PNAS 201420657. Online.


Speijer et al. (2015)

Speijer, D., Lukeš, J., & Eliáš, M. (2015). Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life. PNAS 112(29), 8827-8834. Online.


Cavalier-Smith et al. (2015)


Silar (2016)

Silar, Philippe. 2016. Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes. HAL: 462 Online.


Tedersoo (2017)

Tedersoo, L. 2017. Proposal for practical multi-kingdom classification of eukaryotes based on monophyly and comparable divergence time criteria. BioRxiv 2017: 240929

Domain Eukaryota

Adl et. al (2018)

Adl, S.M., Bass, D., Lane, C.E., Lukeš, J., Schoch, C.L., Smirnov, A., ... & Cárdenas, P. 2018. Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Online.


Burki et. al (2020)

Burki, F., Roger, A. J., Brown, M. W., & Simpson, A. G. 2020. The new tree of eukaryotes. Trends in ecology & evolution 351: 43–55. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2019.08.008


Zmitrovich, Perelygin & Zharikov (2022)

Zmitrovich, I. V., Perelygin, V., Zharikov, M. V. 2022. Nomenclature and rank correlation of higher taxa of eukaryotes. Folia Cryptogamica Petropolitana. Moscow: INFRA-M, 2022. ISBN: 978-5-16-018531-6

Dominium Eukaryota


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Vernacular names

Afrikaans: Egkerniges
Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقيات النوى
Boarisch: Eikaryóten
беларуская: Эўкарыёты
български: Еукариоти
বাংলা: সকেন্দ্রক অধিজগত
bosanski: Eukarioti
català: Eucariota
čeština: Jaderní
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: Eukaryotes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
español: Eucariontes
eesti: Eukarüoodid
فارسی: هسته داران
suomi: Aitotumaiset
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
français: Eucaryotes
Gaeilge: Eocaróit
ગુજરાતી: સકેન્દ્રક અધિજગત
עברית: איקריוטיים
हिन्दी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
hrvatski: Eukarioti
magyar: Eukarióták
հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
한국어: 진핵생물
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
latviešu: Eikariots
македонски: Еукариоти
मराठी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
नेपाली: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
norsk: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਕੇਂਦਰਕ ਅਧਿਜਗਤ
polski: Eukarionty
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
português: Eucariota
română: Eucariote
русский: Эукариоты
සිංහල: සූන්‍යෂ්ටිකයන් (යුකැරියා)
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
shqip: Eukariotët
svenska: Eukaryoter
தமிழ்: மெய்க்கருவுயிரி
тоҷикӣ: Эукариотҳо
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar
українська: Еукаріоти
oʻzbekcha / ўзбекча: Eukariotlar
vèneto: Eucariota
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
中文: 真核域
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