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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Charophyta
Classis: Charophyceae
Ordines: Charales - Coleochaetales


Charophyceae Körb., Grundr. Krypt.-Kunde: 93. 1848 (“Characeae”).


Primary references[edit]

  • Körber, G.W. 1848. Grundriss der Kryptogamen-Kunde. Zur Orientirung beim Studium der kryptogamischen Pflanzen, sowie zum Gebrauch bei seinen Vorlesungen. [i]-viii, [1]–203, [204]. Breslau: Verlag von Eduard Trewendt. BHL ZOBODATReference page

Additional references[edit]

  • Doweld, A.B. 2001. Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Tentamen systematis plantarum vascularium (Tracheophyta) [Prosyllabus Tracheophytorum. Опыт системы сосудистых растений]. LXXX + 110 pp. Moscow: Geos. ISBN 5-89118-283-1. DJVU Reference page
  • McCourt, R.M., Karol, K.G., Hall, J.D., Casanova, M.T., Grant, M.C. (2017). Charophyceae (Charales). In: Archibald, J.M., Simpson, A.G.B., Slamovits, C. (Eds.). Handbook of the Protists. Springer, pp. 1-19. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32669-6_40-2

Alternative classifications[edit]

Rabenhorst (1863)[edit]

Rabenhorst, G. L. Kryptogamen-flora von Sachsen, pp. xiv, 282, [1].


Smith (1938)[edit]

Cryptogamic Botany, vol. 1, [2].

Division Chlorophyta

Stewart & Mattox (1975)[edit]

Stewart, K. D. & Mattox, K. R. (1975). Comparative cytology, evolution and classification of the green algae with some consideration of the origin of other organisms with chlorophylls A and B, [3].

Green algae

Mattox & Stewart (1984)[edit]

Mattox, K. R. & Stewart, K. D. 1984. Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. Pp. 29‐72, In Irvine, D. E. G. & John, D. M. (eds.), The systematics of Green Algae. The Systematics Association, Special Vol. 27, Academic Press, London.

Graham (1990) / Grant (1990)[edit]

Graham, L., 1990. 32d. Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Charophyceae, Orders Chlorokybales, Klebsormidiales, Coleochaetales. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 636-640. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [4].

Grant, M.C., 1990. 32e. Phylum Chlorophyta, Class Charophyceae, Order Charales. In: Margulis, L., J.O. Corliss, M. Melkonian, D.J. Chapman (ed.). Handbook of Protoctista. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston, p. 641-648. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [5].

Kingdom Protoctista

van den Hoek, Mann and Jahns (1995)[edit]

van den Hoek, C., Mann, D. G., & Jahns, H. M. (1995): Algae. An Introduction to Phycology. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, [6].


Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

The Revised Classification of Eukaryotes, [7].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

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