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ৱিকিপ্ৰজাতি আৰু জুকীজসহযোগিতা ঘোষণা কৰা হৈছে। ফাইট'কীজেও এই সহযোগিতাত নৱেম্বৰ ২০১০ত যোগদান কৰিলে। ৱিকিপ্ৰজাতি ব্যৱহাৰ কৰি জুকীজ আৰু ফাইট'কীজৰ প্ৰজাতিসমূহৰ চিত্ৰ ৱিকিমিডিয়া কমন্সত আপল'ড কৰা হ'ব।



প্ৰতিষ্ঠিত লেখক

চাৰ্ল্চ লুচিয়েন বনাপাৰ্ট এজন ফ্ৰেঞ্চ জুলজিষ্ট। তেওঁ অৰ্ণিথলজি আৰু ইক্টিয়লজিৰ অধ্যয়ন কৰ্তা আছিল।
Bonaparte Charles Luciene Jules Laurent.jpg

Charles Lucien Bonaparte
May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857. Author abbreviation: Bonaparte

Charles Lucien ("Carlo Luciano") Bonaparte was French zoologist specialized in ornithology and ichthyology. He also studied amphibians and reptiles and is the author of Ursini's viper, Vipera ursinii. Bonaparte was the son of Lucien Bonaparte and Alexandrine de Bleschamp, and a nephew of Emperor Napoleon. Born in Paris, he was raised in Italy. After getting married to Zénaïde Bonaparte, he and his wife left for Philadelphia in the United States to live with Joseph Bonaparte, father of Zénaïde. Before leaving Italy, Charles had already discovered a warbler new to science, the moustached warbler (Acrocephalus melanopogon), and on the voyage he collected specimens of a new storm-petrel, Oceanites oceanicus. On arrival in the United States he presented a paper on this new bird, which was later named Wilson's storm petrel (after Alexander Wilson).

At the end of 1826, Bonaparte and his family returned to Europe. He visited Germany, where he met Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar, and England, where he met John Edward Gray at the British Museum, and renewed his acquaintance with John James Audubon. In 1828, the family settled in Rome. In Italy, he was the originator of several scientific congresses, and lectured and wrote extensively on American and European ornithology and other branches of natural history. Between 1832 and 1841, Bonaparte published his work on the animals of Italy, Iconografia della Fauna Italica. He had also published Specchio Comparativo delle Ornithologie di Roma e di Filadelfia (Pisa, 1827), presenting a comparison between birds of the latitude of Philadelphia and Italian species. He created the genus Zenaida, after his wife, for the mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) and its relatives. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1845.

In 1850, Bonaparte and his family of wife and twelve children moved to France, and he made Paris his home for the rest of his life. In 1854, he became director of the Jardin des Plantes. In 1855, he was made a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He published the first volume of his Conspectus Generum Avium before his death, the second volume being edited by Hermann Schlegel. Lucien Charles Bonaparte died in Paris at the age of 54.

See also: List of 53 taxa authored by Charles Lucien BonaparteDistinguished authors of previous months


Species of the month

Cocoa Tree

Theobroma cacao

Theobroma cacao

Some facts on this tree:

Tree height: 4-8 meters.

Flower: 1–2 cm. in diameter, with pink calyx.

Fruit, called also Pod: Up to 30cm long, yellow, brown and even purple in colour, usually with 10 ribs. Each pod contains 20 to 60 beans up to 3 cm long, which are usually arranged in five rows surrounded by a sugary pulp.

Range: Native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Cultivated also in Africa and Asia between ±15° latitude.

Life-span: Up to 100 years, but cultivated trees are considered economically productive for only about 60 years.

First described: By Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus in 1753.


Take some Theobroma cacao seeds, grind them to a smooth butter, add a sweetener and other flavorings, such as vanilla, and what do you get? You probably guessed: it's the beloved chocolate. This tree grows all over the tropics, especially in Western Africa where 70% of the cocoa world production is made in countries such as the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Cacao trees are quite picky about their environment. They require moist, nutrient-rich, well-drained soil and partial sunlight. The plant is also sensitive to pests and scientists are crossing West African cocoa trees with their wild South American ancestors to create disease-resistant trees, which will lead to fewer chemicals. Currently, 4 million metric tons of beans worth more than $4 billion are produced each year. The meaning of the scientific name is 'food of the gods' in Greek. Mayan and Aztec nobles drank their cocoa beans ground and brewed with chillies and in the Aztec empire the beans were used as money. It arrived in Spain in the 16th century, and gradually grew in popularity especially with the ladies of the Spanish court. The cacao tree is a member of the Malvaceae or mallow family which contains over 200 genera with close to 2300 species including the kapok, mallow, cola and hibiscus.

See also: Species of previous months

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