بُنیادی تاکدیم

From Wikispecies
Jump to navigation Jump to search


به بلوچی زبانی ویکی رقمی تا وش آتیت.

Welcome to Balochi (Western) language Wikispecies

تا انون به ای ویکی تا 623,365 .مقاله موجود انت

ویکی‌رقم ای یک پروژه اینت په زنده جانین حیواناني خاتیرا هنچو یک مالوماتین بانکیا اینت، شما ئه توانیت که ایدا ګو بلوچی زبانا همکاری بکنیت.'

Taxon Navigation

Explore Wikispecies

Collaboration with ZooKeys

Zookeys logo.svg
PhytoKeys Logo.svg

A collaboration between Wikispecies and ZooKeys has been announced. PhytoKeys also joined the collaboration in November 2010. Images of species from ZooKeys and PhytoKeys will be uploaded to Wikimedia Commons and used in Wikispecies.



Distinguished author

Mary Agnes Chase (1869-1963), sitting at desk with specimens.jpg

Mary Agnes Chase
1869–1963. Standard IPNI form: Chase

Mary Agnes Chase, née Merrill, was an American botanist who worked at the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Smithsonian Institution. She is considered one of the world's outstanding agrostologists and is known for her work on the study of grasses, and also for her work as a suffragist. Chase was born in Iroquois County, Illinois and held no formal education beyond grammar school. That aside, she made significant contributions to the field of botany, authored over 70 scientific publications, and was conferred with an honorary doctorate in science from the University of Illinois. She specialized in the study of grasses and conducted extensive field work in North- as well as and South America. Her Smithsonian Field Books collection from 1897 to 1959 is archived in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

In 1901, Chase became a botanical assistant at the Field Museum of Natural History under Charles Frederick Millspaugh, where her work was featured in two museum publications: Plantae Utowanae (1900) and Plantae Yucatanae (1904). Two years later, Chase joined the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as a botanical illustrator and eventually became a scientific assistant in systematic agrostology (1907), assistant botanist (1923), and associate botanist (1925), all under Albert Spear Hitchcock. Chase worked with Hitchcock for almost twenty years, collaborating closely and also publishing, for instance The North American Species of Panicum (1910).

Following Hitchcock's death in 1936, Chase succeeded him to become senior botanist in charge of systematic agrostology and custodian of the Section of Grasses, Division of Plants at the United States National Museum (USNM). Chase retired from the USDA in 1939, but continued her work as custodian of the USNM grass herbarium until her death in 1963. She was an Honorary Fellow of the Smithsonian Institution (1959) and Fellow of the Linnean Society of London (1961). Agnesia is named in her honour (a monotypic genus of herbaceous South American bamboo in the grass family).

Chase experienced discrimination based on her gender in the scientific field, for example, being excluded from expeditions to Panama in 1911 and 1912 because the expedition's benefactors feared the presence of women researchers would distract men. During World War I, Chase marched with Alice Paul and was jailed several times for her activities. In 1918, she was arrested at the Silent Sentinels rally picketing the White House; she refused bail and was held for 10 days, where she instigated a hunger-strike and was force-fed. The USDA accused her of "conduct unbecoming a government employee," but Hitchcock helped her keep her job. Chase was also an active member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).

See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.

Species of the month

Cocoa Tree

Theobroma cacao

Theobroma cacao

Some facts on this tree:

Tree height: 4-8 meters.

Flower: 1–2 cm. in diameter, with pink calyx.

Fruit, called also Pod: Up to 30cm long, yellow, brown and even purple in colour, usually with 10 ribs. Each pod contains 20 to 60 beans up to 3 cm long, which are usually arranged in five rows surrounded by a sugary pulp.

Range: Native to the deep tropical region of the Americas. Cultivated also in Africa and Asia between ±15° latitude.

Life-span: Up to 100 years, but cultivated trees are considered economically productive for only about 60 years.

First described: By Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus in 1753.


Take some Theobroma cacao seeds, grind them to a smooth butter, add a sweetener and other flavorings, such as vanilla, and what do you get? You probably guessed: it's the beloved chocolate. This tree grows all over the tropics, especially in Western Africa where 70% of the cocoa world production is made in countries such as the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Cacao trees are quite picky about their environment. They require moist, nutrient-rich, well-drained soil and partial sunlight. The plant is also sensitive to pests and scientists are crossing West African cocoa trees with their wild South American ancestors to create disease-resistant trees, which will lead to fewer chemicals. Currently, 4 million metric tons of beans worth more than $4 billion are produced each year. The meaning of the scientific name is 'food of the gods' in Greek. Mayan and Aztec nobles drank their cocoa beans ground and brewed with chillies and in the Aztec empire the beans were used as money. It arrived in Spain in the 16th century, and gradually grew in popularity especially with the ladies of the Spanish court. The cacao tree is a member of the Malvaceae or mallow family which contains over 200 genera with close to 2300 species including the kapok, mallow, cola and hibiscus.

See also: Species of previous months

Wikispecies in other languages

العربية · ئۇيغۇرچە · Afrikaans · Alemannisch · Aragonés · অসমীয়া · Asturianu · Azərbaycanca · Bahasa Indonesia · Bahasa Melayu · بلوچی · Български · বাংলা · Беларуская · Boarisch · Bosanski · Brezhoneg · Català · Čeština · Cymraeg · Dansk · Deutsch · Eesti · Ελληνικά · English · Ænglisc · Español · Esperanto · Euskara · فارسی · Føroyskt · Français · Galego · ქართული · 廣東話 · 한국어 · Հայերեն · Hrvatski · Interlingua · Íslenska · Italiano · עברית · हिन्दी · қазақша · Кыргызча · Magyar · Mirandés · Македонски · मराठी · молдовеняскэ · Nederlands · नेपाली · 日本語 · Nordfriisk · Norsk bokmål · Нохчийн · ଓଡ଼ିଆ · Occitan · Polski · Português · Ripoarisch/Kölsch · Română · Runa Simi · Русский · Scots · Shqip · සිංහල · Sicilianu · Simple English · Slovenčina · Slovenščina · Српски/Srpski · Sunda · Suomi · Svenska · Tagalog · Тоҷикӣ · தமிழ் · ไทย · Tiếng Việt · Türkçe · Українська · Veneto · Volapük · ייִדיש · Zazaki · 简体中文 · 正體中文

Wikispecies is run by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation, which operates several other multilingual and free-content projects:

Meta-Wiki
Coordination of all Wikimedia projects
Wikipedia
The free encyclopedia
Commons
Free media repository
Wikibooks
Free textbooks and manuals
Wikiquote
Free collection of quotations
Wiktionary
Free dictionary and thesaurus
Wikisource
The free library
Wikinews
Free content news source
Wikiversity
Free learning materials
Wikidata
Free knowledge base
Wikivoyage
Free travel guide
MediaWiki
Free wiki software