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|Haloquadratum walsbyi||Sitta europaea caesia||Caloboletus calopus||♂Aphyocharax anisitsi|
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Francesco Redi was an Italian entomologist, parasitologist and toxicologist, sometimes referred to as the "founder of experimental biology" and the "father of modern parasitology". Having a doctoral degree and in both medicine and philosophy from the University of Pisa at the age of 21, he worked in various cities of Italy.
Redi is best known for his series of experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti ("Experiments on the Generation of Insects"), which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. The book is one of the first steps in refuting "spontaneous generation", a theory also known as "Aristotelian abiogenesis". At the time, prevailing theory was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat, which Redi was able to disprove. In an experiment, He used samples of rotting meat that were either fully exposed to the air, partially exposed to the air, or not exposed to air at all. Redi showed that both fully and partially exposed rotting meat developed fly maggots, whereas rotting meat that was not exposed to air did not develop maggots. This discovery completely changed the way people viewed the decomposition of organisms and prompted further investigations into insect life cycles and into entomology in general. It is also an early example of forensic entomology.
In Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Redi was the first to describe ectoparasites, such as lice (Phthiraptera), fleas (Siphonaptera), and some mites (Acari). His next treatise in 1684, titled Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi ("Observations on Living Animals, that are in Living Animals") recorded the descriptions and the illustrations of more than 100 parasites. In it he also differentiates the earthworm (generally regarded as a helminth) and Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm. An important innovation from the book is his experiments in chemotherapy in which he employed what is now called "scientific control", the basis of experimental design in modern biological research. Perhaps, his most significant observation was that parasites produce eggs and develop from them, which contradicted the prevailing opinion that they are produced spontaneously. Altogether he is known to have described some 180 species of parasites.See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.
Species of the month
Attwater's Prairie Chicken
Some facts about this bird:
Length: 42–46 cm.
(Archived from Template:Species of the week)
Endangered species of the month
Some facts about this species:
Description: Gymnogyps californianus is a New World vulture. It's the largest of all North American land birds, with a 3.0 m (9.8 ft) wingspan and a weight of up to 12 kg (26 lb).
Habitat: The condors live in rocky shrubland, coniferous forests, and oak savannas. Individual birds have a huge range and have been known to travel up to 250 km (160 mi) in search of carrion.
Distribution: After becoming extinct in the wild in 1987 the California Condor have since been reintroduced to Northern Arizona and southern Utah (including the Grand Canyon area and Zion National Park), the coastal mountains of central and southern California, and northern Baja California.
Threats: This species is mainly threatened by humans and urban development in the form of poaching and habitat destruction, with the biggest threat being lead poisoning caused by accidental ingestion of fragments from bullets in carrion.
Surviving number: In 2010 there were 106 adults in the wild old enough to breed, of which 44 had ever produced viable offspring. An intensive conservation programme involving reintroduction and release of captive-bred birds has since led to a very small but increasing population of this species in the wild. However, the population in the wild remains dependent on intensive conservation management efforts.
Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN 3.1), assessed August 7, 2018.
First described: As Vultur californianus by the British zoologist and botanist George Shaw, 1797, in The Naturalist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described from nature 9 pl. 301, text.
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