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|Haloquadratum walsbyi||Sitta europaea caesia||Caloboletus calopus||♂Aphyocharax anisitsi|
|♀Brachypelma smithi||Hippopotamus amphibius||Euphorbia leuconeura||Sarcophaga sp. with Tipulidae|
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Francesco Redi was an Italian entomologist, parasitologist and toxicologist, sometimes referred to as the "founder of experimental biology" and the "father of modern parasitology". Having a doctoral degree and in both medicine and philosophy from the University of Pisa at the age of 21, he worked in various cities of Italy.
Redi is best known for his series of experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti ("Experiments on the Generation of Insects"), which is regarded as his masterpiece and a milestone in the history of modern science. The book is one of the first steps in refuting "spontaneous generation", a theory also known as "Aristotelian abiogenesis". At the time, prevailing theory was that maggots arose spontaneously from rotting meat, which Redi was able to disprove. In an experiment, He used samples of rotting meat that were either fully exposed to the air, partially exposed to the air, or not exposed to air at all. Redi showed that both fully and partially exposed rotting meat developed fly maggots, whereas rotting meat that was not exposed to air did not develop maggots. This discovery completely changed the way people viewed the decomposition of organisms and prompted further investigations into insect life cycles and into entomology in general. It is also an early example of forensic entomology.
In Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degli Insetti Redi was the first to describe ectoparasites, such as lice (Phthiraptera), fleas (Siphonaptera), and some mites (Acari). His next treatise in 1684, titled Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi ("Observations on Living Animals, that are in Living Animals") recorded the descriptions and the illustrations of more than 100 parasites. In it he also differentiates the earthworm (generally regarded as a helminth) and Ascaris lumbricoides, the human roundworm. An important innovation from the book is his experiments in chemotherapy in which he employed what is now called "scientific control", the basis of experimental design in modern biological research. Perhaps, his most significant observation was that parasites produce eggs and develop from them, which contradicted the prevailing opinion that they are produced spontaneously. Altogether he is known to have described some 180 species of parasites.See also: Distinguished authors of previous months.
Species of the month
Common European Glowworm
Some facts about this beetle:
Average Size: The adult female is 12–20 mm long, while males rarely grow longer than 10 mm. The larvae are often only a few milimeters long.
Endangered species of the month
Devils Hole Pupfish
Some facts about this species:
Total length: 2,3 cm (♀) 3,0 cm (♂, pictured above)
Habitat: Subterraneous geothermal pools and caves with a constant water temperature of between 33.4 and 34.0 degrees Celsius.
Distribution: This lively and energetic killifish is often described as the world's rarest fish. It's range is restricted to Devils Hole,(Wikipedia) a geologic limestone formation located within the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, in the Southwestern United States. From a single opening at the surface that is approximately 1.8 by 5.5 meters wide (pictured above), Devils Hole branches into caverns and chasms at least 90 meters (300 feet) deep.
Diet: Omnivore. They primarily feed on algae that grows on the limestone shelf in Devils Hole. The major food source during the winter and spring is Bacillariophyceae, while algae of the Spirogyra genus serve as the food source in the summer and fall. Academic autopsies have shown that at least some specimen of C. diabolis feed on small Tryonia snails as well as Dugesia triclads and tubularians.
Predators: Cyprinodon diabolis is the largest known inhabitor of Devils Hole and does not have any predators.
Surviving number: Since population surveys began, the wild population has not exceeded 553 individuals. From 1970 through 1996, the average population was 324. For reasons that are still unclear, the Devils Hole population began to decline in the mid-1990s. Since 2005, the population at Devils Hole has been below 200 individuals, although the population fluctuates depending on the season. In 2007, only between 38 and 42 fish remained in Devils Hole. In 2008, the National Park Service began to feed the pupfish a special food to attempt to restore the population. The Devils Hole pupfish count rose in the autumn of 2008 to 126, the first steady increase in more than 10 years. As of spring 2016, a periodic count found 115 of the fish living in the waters of Devils Hole.
Conservation status: Critically Endangered (IUCN 3.1), assessed August 27, 2014.
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