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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Protozoa
Subregnum: Eozoa
Infraregnum: Euglenozoa
Phylum: Euglenozoa
Subphyla: Euglenoida - Postgaardia - Glycomonada

Subphyla (in synonymy): Plicostoma - Saccostoma

Classes (overview): Diplosonematophyceae – Euglenoidea (Euglenophyceae) – Kinetoplastea (Bodonophyceae) – Postgaardea (Postgaardiophyceae)


Euglenozoa K.I.Mey., Razmn. Rast. 14 (1937) ("Euglenophyta")


  • Bodonozoa Casper, Grundz. Nat. Syst. Mikroorg. 180 (1974) (“Bodonicea”), pro zool. phyl.
  • Diplosonematozoa Doweld, Prosyllabus: lxvii (2001) (“Diplosonematophyta”).
    • Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981 (isonym)
    • Bodonophyta (Bodonozoa) Doweld, Prosyllabus: lxvii (2001) (isonym)


Primary references[edit]

Additional references[edit]

Alternative classifications[edit]

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

In empire Eukaryota

John O. Corliss (1984)[edit]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla.

In Kingdom Protista
Assemblage "Euglenozoa" named after kingdom Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981

Patterson (1988)[edit]

Patterson, D. J. 1988. The evolution of Protozoa. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 83 (suppl. 1): 580–600, [1].

[Table 1. Major groups of protists distinguished by ultrastructural identity]

Cavalier-Smith (1993a)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1993). The origin, losses and gains of chloroplasts. In: Origins of plastids (pp. 291-348). Springer US, [2].

T. Cavalier-Smith (1993b).[edit]

From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla, [3].

Empire Eukaryota

Simpson (1997)[edit]

Simpson, A. G. (1997). The identity and composition of the Euglenozoa. Archiv für Protistenkunde, 148(3), 318-328, [4].

Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981

T. Cavalier-Smith (1998).[edit]

From A revised six-kingdom system of life.

In Kingdom Protozoa, Subkingdom Neozoa, Infrakingdom Discicristata
Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith 1981

David J. Patterson (1999)[edit]

From The diversity of eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Euglenozoa

Alimov et al. (2000)[edit]

Alimov, A. F. ed. (А. Ф. Алимов). 2000. Protista 1: Handbook on zoology (Протисты 1: руководство по зоологии). St. Petersburg: Nauka, 2000, 679 pp. (in Russian, with English summaries), [5].


Doweld (2001)[edit]

Dominium Eukaryota

Leedale & Vickerman, in Lee et al. (2002)[edit]

Leedale, G.F. & Vickerman, K., 2002 ["2000"]. Phylum Euglenozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1981. In: Lee, J.J., Leedale, G.F. & Bradbury, P. An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists/Allen Press: Lawrence, Kansas, U.S.A, 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 1135-1185, [6]. See Brands, S.J. (1989-2015), [7].

In “protozoa”, “flagellated protists

T. Cavalier-Smith (2002).[edit]

From The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa.

In kingdom Protozoa, subkingdom Gymnomyxa, infrakingdom Excavata, superphylum Discicristata
Phylum Euglenozoa

Alastair G. B. Simpson (2003)[edit]

From Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota)

In Excavata
Clade Euglenozoa

Adl et al. (2005)[edit]

From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [8].


Adl et al. (2012)[edit]

Adl, S. M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [9].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [10].

Cavalier-Smith (2016)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2016). Higher classification and phylogeny of Euglenozoa. Eur. J. Protistol. 56: 147–170, [11].

Phylum Euglenozoa

For more multimedia, look at Euglenozoa on Wikimedia Commons.