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Actinophrys sol



Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Chromista
Subregnum: Harosa
Infraregnum: Heterokonta
Phylum: Ochrophyta
Subphylum: Phaeista
Superclassis: Raphidoistia
Classis: Actinophryophyceae
Ordo: Actinophryales
Subordines: Actinosphaeriineae – Actinophryineae



Actinophryales P.Gervais & van Beneden, Zool. Méd. 2: 440 (1858) (“Actinophrys”), pro zool. ord.

  • Type genus: Actinophrys Ehrenberg, 1830


  • Heterotypic
    • Actinosphaeriales E.K.Brandt, Uchebn. Zool. 2: 290 (1876) (“Actinosphaerida”), pro zool. ord.
  • Orthographic variants:
  • Actinophrydea Hartmann, 1913
  • Actinophrydia Kühn, 1926


  • Brandt, E.K. [Брандтъ, Э.К.] 1876. Учебникъ зоологiи примѣнительно къ учебнымъ планамъ реальныхъ училищъ, а равно къ программамъ другихъ среднеучебныхъ заведенiй, въ которыхъ преподается естественная исторiя [Textbook of Zoology for programs in Real Schools, and for programs of other middle real schools in which the natural history is taught]. St.-Petersburg: tipografija A. M. Kotomina, Vol. 1: [i]–[iv], 1–523 [4 Feb [24 Jan, Old Style] 1876 ‘1875’]; Vol. 2: [i]–[vii], 1–298, [corr.] [27 [15, Old Style] Mai 1876] (Russian) Reference page
  • Hartmann, M. 1913. Rhizopoda. In: Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften, Band 8: 422–446. Jena: Gustav Fischer. BHL Reference page
  • Mikrjukov, K.A. & Patterson, D.J. 2001. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Heliozoa. III. Actinophryids. Acta Protozoologica 40(1): 3–26. [1] ResearchGate Open access Reference page
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. & Scoble, J.M. 2013. Phylogeny of Heterokonta: Incisomonas marina, a uniciliate gliding opalozoan related to Solenicola (Nanomonadea), and evidence that Actinophryida evolved from raphidophytes. European Journal of Protistology 49: 328–353. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejop.2012.09.002 Researchgate. Reference page
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Actinophryales on Wikimedia Commons.



Hartmann (1913)



Kühn (1926)


Kühn, A. (1921). Morphologie der Tiere in Bildern. Heft 2: Protozoen. Teil 2. Rhizopoden. Gebrüder Borntraeger: Berlin, [2].


Honigberg et al. (1964)


Class: Actinopodea
Subclass: Heliozoia

Cavalier-Smith (1993)


From Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla

In Class Nucleohelea
Order Actinophryida Hartmann, 1913

David J. Patterson (1999)


From The Diversity of Eukaryotes

In Eukaryotes
Clade Actinophryids

Mikrjukov & Patterson (2001)


Classification 1

Classification 2

Nikolaev et al. (2005)


From The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes, [4].


Cavalier-Smith & Scoble (2013)


Infrakingdom Heterokonta