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Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Phylum: Amoebozoa
Subphyla: Conosa - Lobosa - Protamoebae


Amoebozoa L.S.Dillon, Syst. Zool. 12: 78. 1963 emend. Cavalier-Smith, 1998


Arcellozoa L.S.Dillon, Syst. Zool. 12: 78. 1963.

Similar group (translate):


Additional references[правіць]

  • Cavalier-Smith, T. 2009: Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 26–33. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x Abstract
  • Minge, M.A.; Silberman, J.D.; Orr, R.J.S.; Cavalier-Smith, T.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, K.; Burki, F.; Skjæveland, A.; Jakobsen, K.S. 2009: Evolutionary position of breviate amoebae and the primary eukaryote divergence. Proceedings of the Royal Society (B), 276: 597–604. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1358
  • Nikolaev, S.I.; Berney, C.; Petrov, N.B.; Mylnikov, A.P.; Fahrni, J.F.; Pawlowski, J. 2006: Phylogenetic position of Multicilia marina and the evolution of Amoebozoa. International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 56: 1449–1458. DOI 10.1099/ijs.0.63763-0 PDF
  • Parfrey LW, Barbero E, Lasser E, Dunthorn M, Bhattacharya D, et al. (2006) Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity. PLoS Genet 2(12): e220. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220
  • Pawlowski, J.; Burki, F. 2009: Untangling the phylogeny of amoeboid protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 56: 16–25. DOI: 10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00379.x Abstract PDF


Vernacular names[правіць]

English: amoebozoans
français: Amibozoaires, Amibes
日本語: アメーボゾア
lietuvių: Ameboidiniai
português: Amebozoários
Türkçe: Kökbacaklılar
For more multimedia, look at Amoebozoa on Wikimedia Commons.

Alternative classifications[правіць]

Lühe (1913)[правіць]

Luhe M 1913: Erstes Urreich der Tiere. In: Lang A, editor. Handbuch der morphologie der wirbellosen Tiere. Jena: G. Fischer. 416 p.


Corliss (1984)[правіць]

From The kingdom Protista and its 45 phyla [1].

Kingdom Protista Haeckel, 1866

Cavalier-Smith (1995)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1995). Zooflagellate phylogeny and classification. Tsitologiia, 37, 1010–1029, [2].


Cavalier-Smith (1996/97)[правіць]

From Amoeboflagellates and mitochondrial cristae in eukaryote evolution: megasystematics of the new protozoan subkingdoms eozoa and neozoa, [3], [4].

Kingdom Protozoa

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1998: A revised six-kingdom system of life, Biological Reviews 73 (3): 203–66.


Cavalier-Smith (2002)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith T., 2002. The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002 Mar;52(Pt 2):297-354, DOI: 10.1099/00207713-52-2-297.

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Phylum: Amoebozoa

Hausmann et al. (2003)[правіць]

Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.

Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)

Cavalier-Smith et al. (2004)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith, T.; Chao, E.E.-Y.; Oates, B. 2004: Molecular phylogeny of Amoebozoa and the evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium. European journal of protistology, 40: 21–48.


Smirnov et al. (2005)[правіць]

Smirnov A, Nassonova E, Berney C, Fahrni J, Bolivar I, et al. 2005: Molecular phylogeny and classification of the lobose amoebae. Protist 156: 129–142.


Adl et al. (2005)[правіць]

Adl, S.M. et al. 2005: The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists. Journal of eukaryotic microbiology, 52(5): 399–451. PDF


Smirnov et al. (2011)[правіць]

Smirnov, A., Chao, E., Nassonova, E. & Cavalier-Smith, T. 2011. A revised classification of naked lobose amoebae (Amoebozoa: Lobosa). Protist, 162:545–570.


Adl et al. (2012)[правіць]

Adl, S.M. et al. (2012). The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–514, [5]. Erratum, [6].


[Notes: M, monotypic group with only one described species; P, paraphyletic group; R, ribogroup assembled from phylogenetic studies.]

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[правіць]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [7].

Cavalier-Smith et al. (2015)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith, T., Fiore-Donno, A. M., Chao, E., Kudryavtsev, A., Berney, C., Snell, E. A., & Lewis, R. (2015). Multigene phylogeny resolves deep branching of Amoebozoa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 83, 293-304, [8].


Cavalier-Smith et al. (2016)[правіць]

Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E. E., & Lewis, R. (2016). 187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99, 275-296.