Help:Reference section

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Contents · General Wikispecies · Taxonavigation section · Name section · Reference section
Vernacular names section · Image Guidelines · Author Names · Project Templates · Project sources

Reference Section[edit]

The reference section should provide evidence for the information given on the page. Without this evidence information becomes useless.

Please give multiple references as a bulleted list, by authors in alphabetical order. A useful template we use in the section is the {{a|Author Page Name|Author Short Name}} template. This will print authors' names in a different font from the rest of the text (Linnaeus) and create a link to the WikiSpecies page giving information about the author. Names of journals or titles of books should be italicized.

Please make use of the following rules:

  • Follow the year with a dot. Example: 2015.
  • Don't add spaces between the author's initials. Example: Ferreyra, H.D.V.
  • Use small caps for the authors' names and link them to their respective page by employing the {{a}} template. Example: {{a|Hebe Del Valle Ferreyra|Ferreyra, H.D.V.}} which will render as Ferreyra, H.D.V. but link to Hebe Del Valle Ferreyra.
  • Don't add space between volume and fascicle numbers. Example: 4057(1)
  • All authors should be listed. Don't use et al.
  • Link the journal name to its ISSN page. Example: Zootaxa

Example of a reference section:

* {{a|María Soledad Moleón|Moleón, M.S.}}, {{a|John Mike Kinsella|Kinsella, J.M.}}, {{a|Pablo Gastón Moreno|Moreno, P.G.}}, {{a|Hebe Del Valle Ferreyra|Ferreyra, H.D.V.}}, {{a|Javier Pereira|Pereira, J.}}, {{a|Mónica Pía|Pía, M.}} & {{a|Pablo Martín Beldomenico|Beldomenico, P.M.}} 2015. New hosts and localities for helminths of carnivores in Argentina. ''[[ISSN 1175-5326|Zootaxa]]'' 4057(1): 106–114. {{doi|10.11646/zootaxa.4057.1.6}} [ Preview (PDF)]

Which will display as:


A reference is a good reference when:

  • It is the original description of the taxon or a subsequent taxonomic revision confirming or changing the status of the taxon.
  • It specifies all authors' names, the publications' DOI number and where available, a link to the abstract or to the full article.
  • The reference lists further references from which the author has drawn information.

If above points are lacking in your sources, the reference must be considered, and marked as, doubtful. Most biological/taxonomic journals published more than 90 years ago are now considered Public Domain and can be viewed on websites such as the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL). Some more recent journals are also available for web viewing. When this is the case, it is helpful to include a hyperlink to the appropriate web page, as above for Systema Naturae.

Reference Subsections[edit]

It is advisable to divide the various references by subsections according to their importance in the following order:

===Primary references===

To include all nomenclatural acts: original description, synonyms, comb. nov., type assignment etc.

===Additional references===

To include all the rest of the taxa mentions: type revisions, distribution, material, taxon checklists/reviews etc.


Links to external sites.

Headings in a complete reference section:
===Primary references===
===Additional references===

Note the plural, i.e. "references" and "Links", never "reference" or "Link", even if the subsection only consists of a single citation.

Reference Templates[edit]

When a particular taxonomic work includes descriptions of numerous new taxa, or when it authoritatively revises a significant group of taxa, it is likely that it will be cited as a reference on numerous pages. In such a case, it is very useful to create a Reference Template for the published paper. The Wikispecies standard format of these references is:

  • Author, A. Year. Title of Paper. Name of Journal Volume x (part y): pages n1–n2, plates x1–x2. Internet link.

or for a book...

  • Author, A. Year. Title of Book. Name and location of publisher: n pages and x plates. Internet link.

The Reference Template is created on a page titled Template:Author, Year and can then be called up on a taxon page using the syntax: {{Author, Date}}

Example Reference Template:

*{{a|Henri Stempffer|Stempffer, H.}} 1967. The genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). [[ISSN 0524-6431|''Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), entomology'']]. 
Supplement 10: 322pp, 1pl. [ BHL] {{subst:reftemp}}

Which will display as:

The Substitution Code {{Subst:reftemp}} is a quick way of adding several useful common components (which will not all be shown when the reference is cited on a taxon page) to the end of any Reference Template. Clicking on the "reference page" link at the end of the citation will take you to the original Reference Template page so that it can be modified. Any change made on the Reference Template will appear automatically whenever a taxon page that contains the citation is viewed.

Additional Information[edit]

It is also permissible to add a further section on the Reference Template page listing the taxonomic acts delivered by the reference or links to other relevant websites, ZooBank for example. So that these are not delivered to taxon pages when the Reference Template is called up, they must be set inside a <noinclude>...</noinclude> bracket set. Here is an (extreme) example.

Standard Reference Templates[edit]

There are several templates available for references that are cited often.

Standard reference templates
Template code Result More information
{{AlgaeBase|genus|43546}} AlgaeBase Template:AlgaeBase
{{ASW5|accessdate=2008-01-16}} Frost, Darrel R. (2007). Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 5.0. Electronic database accessible at [1]. Accessed on 2008-01-16. Template:ASW5
{{CoF|sp|4340||Nematobrycon palmeri}}
{{FishBase|258|''Esox lucius''}}


{{ITIS|180679|''Dugong dugon'' (Müller, 1776)}}
{{IUCN|CR|57334|Telmatobius culeus}} IUCN: Telmatobius culeus (Critically Endangered) Template:IUCN
{{NCBI|9606|''Homo sapiens''}} NCBI link: Homo sapiens Template:NCBI
{{NRDB genus|genus=Naja}}
{{NRDB species|genus=Naja|species=naja}}
Naja at the New Reptile Database

Naja naja at the New Reptile Database

Template:NRDB genus
Template:NRDB species
{{WoRMS||154210}} Esox lucius in the World Register of Marine Species Template:WoRMS
Name section Reference section Vernacular names section