Help:Reference section

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Reference Section[edit]

The reference section should provide evidence for the information given on the page. Without this evidence information becomes useless.

Please give multiple references as a bulleted list, by authors in alphabetical order . A useful template we use in the section is the {{a|Author Page Name|Author Short Name}} template. This will print authors names in different font from the rest of the text (Linnaeus) and create a link to the WikiSpecies page giving information about the author. Names of journals or titles of books should be italicized.

Example reference section:

==References==
* {{a|Carolus Linnaeus|Linnaeus}}, 1758. ''Systema Naturae'' Tomus '''I'''(II): 339-823. [http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/6992099 BHL].
* Internet resource [http://www.myreference.org/]

Which will display as:

References

  • Linnaeus, 1758. Systema Naturae Tomus I(II): 339-823. BHL.
  • Internet resource [1]

A reference is a good reference when:

  • It is the original description of the taxon or a subsequent taxonomic revision confirming or changing the status of the taxon.
  • The reference uses Latin binomial nomenclature, gives dates of publication, and authors names.
  • The reference lists further references from which the author has drawn information.

If above points are lacking in your sources, the reference must be considered, and marked as, doubtful. Most biological/taxonomic journals published more than 90 years ago are now considered Public Domain and can be viewed on websites such as the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL). Some more recent journals are also available for web viewing. When this is the case, it is helpful to include a hyperlink to the appropriate web page, as above for Systema Naturae.

Reference Templates[edit]

When a particular taxonomic work includes descriptions of numerous new taxa, or when it authoritatively revises a significant group of taxa, it is likely that it will be cited as a reference on numerous pages. In such a case, it is very useful to create a Reference Template for the published paper. As in most, if not all, scientific journals, the format of these references is:

  • Author, Year. Title of Paper. Name of Journal: pages n1-n2, plates x1-x2. Internet link. or for a book...
  • Author, Year. Title of Book. Name and location of publisher: n pages and x plates. Internet link.

The Reference Template is created on a page titled Template:Author, Year and can then be called up on a taxon page using the syntax: {{Author, Date}}

Example Reference Template:

*{{a|Henri Stempffer|Stempffer, H.}} 1967. The genera of the African Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). [[ISSN 0524-6431|''Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), entomology'']]. 
Supplement '''10''': 322pp, 1pl. [http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/40873784 BHL] {{subst:reftemp}}

Which will display as:

The Substitution Code {{Subst:reftemp}} is a quick way of adding several useful common components (which will not all be shown when the reference is cited on a taxon page) to the end of any Reference Template. Clicking on the "reference page" link at the end of the citation will take you to the original Reference Template page so that it can be modified. Any change made on the Reference Template will appear automatically whenever a taxon page that contains the citation is viewed.

Additional Information[edit]

It is also permissible to add a further section on the Reference Template page listing the taxonomic acts delivered by the reference or links to other relevant websites, ZooBank for example. So that these are not delivered to taxon pages when the Reference Template is called up, they must be set inside a <noinclude>...</noinclude> bracket set. Here is an (extreme) example.

Standard Reference Templates[edit]

There are several templates available for references that are cited often.

Standard reference templates
Template code Result More information
{{AlgaeBase|genus|43546}} AlgaeBase Template:AlgaeBase
{{ASW5|accessdate=2008-01-16}} Frost, Darrel R. (2007). Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 5.0. Electronic database accessible at [2]. Accessed on 2008-01-16. Template:ASW5
{{CoF|sp|4340||Nematobrycon palmeri}} Nematobrycon palmeri in Catalog of Fishes,
Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed) (2015). Catalog of Fishes electronic version.
Template:CoF
{{FishBase|258|''Esox lucius''}} Esox lucius in FishBase,
Froese, R. & D. Pauly (eds) (2015). FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication, www.fishbase.org, version 11/2014.
Template:FishBase
{{GRIN|fam|879}}


{{GRIN|gen|9418}}


{{GRIN|sp|28411}}
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Pinaceae and its list of genera in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Pinus and its species list in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Pinus albicaulis in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service.
Template:GRIN
{{ITIS|180679|''Dugong dugon'' (Müller, 1776)}} Dugong dugon (Müller, 1776) Report on ITIS Template:ITIS
{{IUCN|CR|57334|Telmatobius Culeus}} IUCN: Telmatobius Culeus (Critically Endangered) Template:IUCN
{{MSW|11600005}}
{{MSW|11600005|i}}
Reference section in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E., & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (editors) (2005). Mammal Species of the World — A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0801882214.
Reference section in Mammal Species of the World.
Wilson, Don E., & Reeder, DeeAnn M. (editors) (2005). Mammal Species of the World — A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Third edition. ISBN 0801882214.
Template:MSW
{{NCBI|9606|''Homo sapiens''}} NCBI link: Homo sapiens Template:NCBI
{{NRDB genus|genus=Naja}}
{{NRDB species|genus=Naja|species=naja}}
Naja at the New Reptile Database

Naja naja at the New Reptile Database

Template:NRDB genus
Template:NRDB species
{{PLANTS|ADENI}} USDA NRCS PLANTS Profile Template:PLANTS
{{WoRMS||154210}} Esox lucius in the World Register of Marine Species Template:WoRMS
Name section Reference section Vernacular names section