Gymnospermae

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Name[edit]

Gymnospermae

Classifications[edit]

Linnaeus (1735)[edit]

Systema Naturae, 1st ed., [1].

Regnum vegetabile

  • Nuptiae plantarum
    • Publicae
      • Monoclinia
        • Diffinitas
          • Indifferentismus
            • I. Monandria (Monogynia, Digynia)
            • II. Diandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia)
            • III. Triandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia)
            • IV. Tetrandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Tetragynia)
            • V. Pentandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Pentagynia, Polygynia)
            • VI. Hexandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Polygynia)
            • VII. Heptandria (Monogynia)
            • VIII. Octandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Polygynia)
            • IX. Enneandria (Monogynia, Trigynia, Hexagynia)
            • X. Decandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Pentagynia, Decagynia)
            • XI. Dodecandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Polygynia)
            • XII. Icosandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Pentagynia, Polygynia)
            • XIII. Polyandria (Monogynia, Digynia, Trigynia, Tetragynia, Pentagynia, Hexagynia, Polygynia)
          • Subordinatio
            • XIV. Didynamia (Gymnospermia, Angiospermia, Polypetala)
            • XV. Tetradynamia (Siliculosa, Siliquosa)
        • Affinitas
          • XVI. Monadelphia (Pentandria, Decandria, Polyandria)
          • XVII. Diadelphia (Hexandria, Octandria, Decandria)
          • XVIII. Polyadelphia (Pentandria, Icosandria, Polyandria)
          • XXIV. Syngenesia (Polygamia aequalis, Polygamia superflua, Polygamia frustranea, Polygamia necessaria, Monogamia)
          • XX. Gynandria (Diandria, Triandria, Tetrandia, Pentandria, Hexandria, Decandria, Polyandria)
      • Diclinia
        • XXI. Monoecia (Monandria, Triandria, Tetrandia, Pentandria, Hexandria, Polyandria, Monadelphia, Polyadelphia, Syngenesia)
        • XXII. Dioecia (Didandria, Triandria, Tetrandia, Pentandria, Hexandria, Octandria, Enneandria, Decandria, Icosandria, Polyandria, Monadelphia, Syngenesia, Gynandria)
        • XXIII. Polygamia (Monoecia, Dioecia, Trioecia)
    • Clandestinae
      • XXIV. Cryptogamia (Arbores, Filices, Musci, Algae, Fungi, Lithophyta)

[Note: similar classifications were used in Species Plantarum, 1st ed., [2], and Genera Plantarum, 5th ed., [3]. See Sexualsystem der Pflanzen.]

de Candolle et al. (1824–1873)[edit]

Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis, 17 vols, [4].

Regni Vegetabilis

  • I. Plantae Vasculares ou Cotyledonae
    • Classis I. Dicotyledonae seu Exogenae
      • Subclassis 1. Thalamiflorae [vol. 1]
      • Subclassis 2. Calyciflorae [vols. 2-7]
      • Subclassis 3. Corolliflorae [vols. 8-13[1]]
      • Subclassis 4. Monochlamydeae [vols. 13(2)-16]
      • Dicotyledonae Gymnospermae [vol. 16, p. 345]
      • Dicotyledonearum ordines omissum vel incertae sedis [vol. 16, p. 548]

Lindley (1830)[edit]

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, [5]. See Lindley (1846), [6].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Vasculares, or flowering plants
    • Exogens or Dicotyledons
      • Tribe 1. Angiospemae
        • § 1. Polypetalous, apetalous, and achlamydeous plants
        • § 2. Monopetalous plants
      • Tribe 2. Gymnospermae
    • Endogens or Monocotyledons
      • Tribe 1. Petaloideae
      • Tribe 2. Glumaceae
  • Cellulares, or flowerless plants
    • Tribe 1. Filicoideae, or fern-like plants
    • Tribe 2. Muscoideae, or moss-like plants
    • Tribe 3. Aphyllae, or leafless plants

Lindley (1833)[edit]

Nixus plantarum, [7]. See Lindley (1846), [8].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Sexuales
    • Vasculares
      • Class I. Exogenae. Angiospermae.
      • Class II. Exogenae. Gymnospermae.
      • Class III. Endogenae
    • Evasculares
      • Class IV. Rhizantheae
  • Class V. Esexuales

Lindley (1839)[edit]

"Miscellaneous matter", in: Edward’s Botanical Register, p. 77, [9]. See Lindley (1846), [10].

Vegetable kingdom

  • State 1. Sexual, or flowering plants
    • Division 1. Exogens
      • Cyclogens
        • Class 1. Angiosperms
        • Class 2. Gymnosperms
      • Class 3. Homogens
    • Division 2. Endogens
      • Spermogens
        • Class 4. Dictyogens
        • Class 5. Ptychogens
      • Class 6. Sporogens (Rizhants)
  • State 2. Esexual, or flowerless plants
    • Division 2. Acrogens
      • Class 7. Cormophytes
      • Class 8. Thallophytes

Brongniart (1843)[edit]

Énumération des genres de plantes cultivées au Musée d'histoire naturelle de Paris, [11]. See Lindley (1846), [12], Engler & Gilg (1919), [13].

Règne Végétal

  • Division Cryptogames (Cryptogamae)
    • Amphigénes (Amphigenae)
    • Acrogénes (Acrogenae)
  • Division Phanérogames (Phanerogamae)
    • Monocotylédones (Monocotyledoneae)
    • Dicotylédones (Dicotyledoneae)

Willkomm (1854)[edit]

Anleitung zum Studium der wissenschaftlichen Botanik, 2 vols., 1854, [14], [15].

[See Plantae (L.)]

Döll [Doell] (1857)[edit]

Flora des Grossherzogthums Baden, 3 vols., [16].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Blüthenlose Gefäßpflanzen [flowerless tracheophytes, p. 1]
  • Gymnospermae [p. 92]
  • Angiospermae [p. 104]

Willkomm (1861)[edit]

Prodromus Florae Hispanicae, 3 vols., [17].

[See Plantae (L.)]

Braun in Ascherson (1864)[edit]

Flora der Provinz Brandenburg, [18]. See Engler & Gilg (1919), [19].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Bryophyta
    • Thallodea (Algen, Flechten, Pilze)
    • Thallophyllodea (Charen, Moose)
  • Cormophyta
  • Anthophyta

Eichler (1883)[edit]

Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde, 3rd ed., 1883. See Engler & Gilg (1919), [20].

[See Plantae (L.)]

Engler (1886)[edit]

Engler, A. 1886. Führer durch den königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau. Breslau: J. U. Kern's Verlag, [21], [22], [23].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Myzetozoa [p. 10]
    • Myxomycetes
  • Thallophyta
    • Schizophyta
    • Algae
    • Fungi
    • Characeae
  • Zoidiogamae (Archegoniatae)
    • Bryophyta
    • Pteridophyta
  • Siphonogamae (Phanerogamae, Anthophyta)
    • Gymnospermae (Archispermae)
    • Angiospermae (Metaspermae)
      • Klasse Monocotyledoneae
      • Klasse Dicotyledoneae
        • Unterklasse Archichlamydeae
        • Unterklasse Sympetalae

Engler & Prantl (1887–1915)[edit]

Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 1st ed., [24], [25].

[See Plantae (L.)]

  • Myxothallophyta
  • Euthallophyta
  • Embryophyta zoidiogama (Embryophyta asiphonogama)
  • Embryophyta siphonogama

Melchior (1964)[edit]

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 2 vols., 12th ed., [26].

Pflanzen

  • Abteilung I: Bacteriophyta
  • Abteilung II: Cyanophyta
  • Abteilung III: Glaucophyta
  • Abteilung IV: Myxophyta
  • Abteilung V: Euglenophyta
  • Abteilung VI: Pyrrophyta
  • Abteilung VII: Chrysophyta
  • Abteilung VIII: Chlorophyta
  • Abteilung IX: Charophyta
  • Abteilung X: Phaeophyta
  • Abteilung XI: Rhodophyta
  • Abteilung XII: Fungi
  • Abteilung XIII: Lichenes
  • Abteilung XIV: Bryophyta
  • Abteilung XV: Pteridophyta
  • Abteilung XVI: Gymnospermae
  • Abteilung XVII: Angiospermae
    • 1. Klasse: Dicotyledoneae
    • 2. Klasse Monocotyledoneae

Cronquist, Takhtajan & Zimmermann (1966)[edit]

Cronquist, A., Takhtajan, A. & Zimmermann, W. (1966). On the Higher Taxa of Embryobionta. Taxon, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Apr., 1966), pp. 129-134, [27].

Subregnum Embryobionta nom. nov. (regio Cormophyta Endl. 1836, Gen. pl.: 42)

  • 1. Divisio Rhyniophyta div. nov.
  • 2. Divisio Bryophyta A. Br. 1864.
  • 3. Divisio Psilotophyta stat. nov.
  • 4. Divisio Lycopodiophyta nom. nov.
  • 5. Divisio Equisetophyta nom. nov.
  • 6. Divisio Polypodiophyta div.nov.
  • 7. Divisio Pinophyta div. nov. (classis Gymnospermae Lindl. 1830, Intr. Nat. Syst. Bot.: 245; divisio Gymnospermae Prantl 1874, Lehrb. d. Bot. 131)
  • 8. Divisio Magnoliophyta div. nov. (divisio Angiospermae A. Br. et Doell 1857, ex Doell, Fl. Baden. 1: 104).
    • Classis Magnoliatae classis nov. (classis Dicotyledoneae DC. 1818, Syst. 1: 123).
      • Typus: Magnolia 1753.
    • Classis Liliatae classis nov. (classis Monocotyledoneae DC 1818, Syst. 1: 122).
      • Typus: Lilium L. 1753.

Kubitzki et al. (1990-)[edit]

Kubitzki, K. (ed.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 1990-. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg, Germany, [28].

Christenhusz et al. (2011)[edit]

Christenhusz, M.J.M., J.L. Reveal, A. Farjon, M.F. Gardner, R.R. Mill, and M.W. Chase (2011). A new classification and linear sequence of extant gymnosperms. Phytotaxa 19:55-70, [29].

Class Equisetopsida [= Embryophyta]

  • ["gymnosperms"]
    • Subclass Cycadidae
      • Order Cycadales
        • Family Cycadaceae: Cycas
        • Family Zamiaceae: Dioon, Bowenia, Macrozamia, Lepidozamia, Encephalartos, Stangeria, Ceratozamia, Microcycas, Zamia.
    • Subclass Ginkgoidae
    • Subclass Gnetidae
    • Subclass Pinidae
      • Order Pinales
        • Family Pinaceae: Cedrus, Pinus, Cathaya, Picea, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Pseudolarix, Tsuga, Nothotsuga, Keteleeria, Abies
      • Order Araucariales
        • Family Araucariaceae: Araucaria, Wollemia, Agathis
        • Family Podocarpaceae: Phyllocladus, Lepidothamnus, Prumnopitys, Sundacarpus, Halocarpus, Parasitaxus, Lagarostrobos, Manoao, Saxegothaea, Microcachrys, Pherosphaera, Acmopyle, Dacrycarpus, Dacrydium, Falcatifolium, Retrophyllum, Nageia, Afrocarpus, Podocarpus
      • Order Cupressales
        • Family Sciadopityaceae: Sciadopitys
        • Family Cupressaceae: Cunninghamia, Taiwania, Athrotaxis, Metasequoia, Sequoia, Sequoiadendron, Cryptomeria, Glyptostrobus, Taxodium, Papuacedrus, Austrocedrus, Libocedrus, Pilgerodendron, Widdringtonia, Diselma, Fitzroya, Callitris (incl. Actinostrobus), Neocallitropsis, Thujopsis, Thuja, Fokienia, Chamaecyparis, Callitropsis, Cupressus, Juniperus, Xanthocyparis, Calocedrus, Tetraclinis, Platycladus, Microbiota
        • Family Taxaceae: Austrotaxus, Pseudotaxus, Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Amentotaxus, Torreya

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [30].