Solanum americanum

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Solanum americanum
Solanum americanum

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Solanales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Solanoideae
Tribus: Solaneae
Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: S. subg. Solanum
Sectio: S. sect. Solanum
Species: Solanum americanum

Name[edit]

Solanum americanum Mill. (1768:s.v. "Solanum")

  • Lectotype: Herb. Miller s.n. (BM000617683, BM)
    • Designated by Edmonds (1972:103)
  • Type locality: Cultivated at the Chelsea Physic Garden

Synonyms[edit]

(After Särkinen et al., 2018)

Homotypic
Heterotypic
  • Solanum nigrum var. patulum L. (1753:186)
  • Solanum patulum (L.) Roth (1800:23)
  • Solanum americanum var. patulum (L.) Edmonds (1977:75)
    • Lectotype: "Solanum procerius patulum, vulgaris fructu", Dillenius, Hortus Elthamensis 2:367, t. 275, f. 355. 1732
    • Epitype: Herb. Dillenius 441 (Dill-HE 275-355, OXF)
      • Both designated by Särkinen et al. (2018). Epitype had been previously designated as lectotype (Edmonds, 2012:136), but Linnaeus only used the plates as original material, and the designation had to be superseded.
  • Solanum nodiflorum Jacq. (1789:288)
  • Solanum desvauxii Ham. (1825:26), nom. illeg. superfl. pro S. nodiflorum
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. nodiflorum (Jacq.) Sendtn. (1846:16)
  • Solanum nigrum f. nodiflorum (Jacq.) Miq. (1856:637)
  • Solanum nigrum var. nodiflorum (Jacq.) A.Gray (1878:228)
  • Solanum americanum var. nodiflorum (Jacq.) Edmonds (in Stearn, 1971:634)
  • Solanum americanum subsp. nodiflorum (Jacq.) R.J.F.Hend. (1988:555)
    • Lectotype: Herb. Jacquin s.n. (BM000617682, BM)
    • Isolectotype: W (W0022646)
      • Designated by Henderson (1974:28)
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Austria at Vienna, said to be from Mauritius
  • Solanum papilionaceum Dum.Cours. (1802:135)
    • Neotype: s.c. s.n. [Herb. Maire] (P00582223, P)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Paris
  • Solanum strictum Zuccagni (1806:[20])
    • Neotype: s.c. s.n. (G00144215, G-DC)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Italy in Bologna (according to Zuccagni: "Semina nobis communicavit Cl. Thouin")
  • Solanum rumphii Dunal (1813:157
  • Solanum nigrum f. rumphii (Dunal) Miq. (1856:637)
    • Lectotype: Rumphius, Herbarium Amboinense 6: t. 26, fig. 2, 1750
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Indonesia. Malaku: Amboina
  • Solanum oleraceum Dunal (1814:750)
  • Solanum nigrum var. oleraceum (Dunal) Hitchc. (1893:111)
    • Lectotype: Herb, Richard s.n. (P00319557, P)
    • Isolectotype: G-DC (G00144258), MPU
      • Designated by D’Arcy (1974:735)
    • Type locality: "Antilles"
  • Solanum dillenii Schult. (1814:393, "Dilleni")
  • Solanum patulum Kit. ex Kanitz (1863:440), nom. illeg. non Solanum patulum (L.) Roth
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. dillenii (Schult.) Schur (1866:478)
  • Solanum nigrum var. dillenii (Schult.) A.Gray (1878:228
    • Lectotype: P. Kitaibel s.n. (Herb. Kit. fasc. IX, No. 102, small-flowered stem only, BP)
    • Isolectotype: B-W (B-W 04364-03)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
  • Solanum microspermum Dunal (1816:12)
    • Lectotype: Herb. Thibaud s.c. s.n. (G00144267, G-DC)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
  • Solanum erythrocarpon G.Mey. (1818:109)
    • Lectotype: E.K. Rodschied 31 (GOET003505, GOET)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Suriname. Saramacca: Hamburg [Hamburg Plantation, Essequibo]
  • Solanum nigrum Vell. (1829:BHL), nom. illeg. non Solanum nigrum L.
  • Solanum tenuiflorum Steud. (1841:606), nom. nov. pro S. nigrum Vell.
  • Solanum nigrum var. angulosum Sendtn. (1846:16)
    • Lectotype: Vellozo, Fl. Flumin. Icon. 2:tab. 109. 1831. Original in the Manuscript Section of the Biblioteca Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (mss1198651_112)
      • Designated by Knapp et al. (2015)
    • Type locality: Brazil. [Rio de Janeiro]
  • Solanum indecorum A.Rich. (1850:121)
    • Lectotype: R. de la Sagra s.n. (P00370899, P)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Cuba. Sin loc., 1836
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. aguaraquiya Sendtn. (1846:17)
  • Solanum pterocaulum var. aguaraquiya Dunal (1852:52, "pterocaulon"; S. pterocaulum = S. scabrum)
    • Lectotype: C.F.P. Martius s.n. (M-0171809, M)
    • Isolectotype: M (M-0171810)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Brazil. Rio Grande do Sul: "Pat. Joan a St. Barbara"
  • Solanum nigrum var. minus Hook.f. (1847:201, "minor")
    • Lectotype: C. Darwin s.n. (CGE00297, CGE)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000922162)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Ecuador. Galápagos Islands: James Island [i.e. Santiago]
  • Solanum amarantoides Dunal (1852:55)
    • Lectotype: C. Gaudichaud 522 (P00319574, P)
    • Isolectotype: P (P00319575), MPU
      • Designated by D'arcy (1974), as holotype, second step by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Brazil. Rio de Janeiro
  • Solanum ptychanthum Dunal (1852:54)
    • Holototype: S.c. s.n. (G00144485, G-DC)
    • Type locality: United States of America. Georgia: Chatham Co., Savannah
  • Solanum nodiflorum var. macrophyllum Dunal (1852:46)
    • Lectotype: C. Gaudichaud 521 (P00319582, P)
    • Isolectotype: P (P00319583, P00319585), G-DC (G00144100), G (G00343373)
      • Designated by D'arcy (1974)
    • Type locality: Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro
  • Solanum nodiflorum var. acuminatum Dunal (1852:46)
    • Lectotype: M. Vauthier 537 (P00319615, P)
    • Isolectotypes: P (P00319614), G-DC (G00343360)
      • Designated by D'arcy (1974)
    • Type locality: Brazil. Minas Gerais
  • Solanum nodiflorum var. petiolastrum Dunal (1852:46)
    • Holotype: P. Claussen 180 (P00319584, P)
    • Type locality: Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Novo Friburgo, 1842
  • Solanum inops Dunal (1852:55)
    • Holotype: J.L. Berlandier 46 (G00144469, G-DC)
    • Isotypes: BM (BM000775579), F (V0073104F, acc. # 680275), LE, P (P00336046, P00336047, P00336048), W (1889-0291394, 1889-0144848)
    • Type locality: Mexico. [Tamaulipas: Tampico, 4 Feb 1827 (according to Särkinen et al, 2018)]
  • Solanum nigrum f. uniflorum (Dunal) Miq. (1856:638)
    • Lectotype: F.W. Junghuhn s.n. (U0113977, U)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Indonesia. Java: "op den Diëng, 6000-8000 ft"
  • Solanum nigrum f. grandifolium O.E.Schulz (1909:160)
    • Holotype: P.E.E. Sintenis 2429 (herb. unknown)
    • Type locality: Puerto Rico. "prope Cayey in sylvis ad rivulum superiorem m. Sept. fl. et. fr."
  • Solanum nigrum f. parvifolium O.E.Schulz (1909:160)
    • Holotype: Baker Herb. Cub. 3377 (herb. unknown)
    • Type locality: Cuba. La Habana: Santiago de las Vegas
  • Solanum minutibaccatum Bitter (1912a:549)
    • Lectotype: Buchtien 1443 (00027684, acc. # 1175843, US)
    • Isolectotypes: GOET (GOET003478), NY (00172089)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Bolivia. La Paz: San Carlos, bei Mapiri, 750 m
  • Solanum inconspicuum Bitter (1912b:204)
    • Holotype: C. Seler 222 (B, destroyed)
    • Type locality: Peru. Lima: Lima
  • Solanum tenellum Bitter (1912b:219)
    • Holotype: A.F. Regnell III 970 (UPS)
    • Isotypes: US [00027821, acc. # 201069, 01931849, acc. # 201352])
    • Type locality: Brasil. Minas Gerais: "Prope urbem Caldas florens fructibusque instructum".
  • Solanum minutibaccatum subsp. curtipedunculatum Bitter (1912b:205)
    • Holotype: M. Bang 1462 (W)
    • Isotypes: BM (BM000617672), E (E00106087), M (M-0171808), MO (MO-503647), NDG (NDG42278), NY (00172090, 00172091, 00172092), PH (PH00030453), US (00027685, acc. # 1324656), WIS (0256198WIS)
    • Type locality: Bolivia. La Paz: Guanai-Tipuani, Apr-Jun 1892
  • Solanum sciaphilum Bitter (1912b:220)
    • Holotype: E. Ule 1678 (B, destroyed, F neg. 2851)
    • Lectotype: HBG (HBG-511539)
    • Isolectotype: HBG (HBG-511540)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Brazil. Santa Catarina: Pedras Grandes
  • Solanum curtipes Bitter (1912b:228)
    • Holotype: É. Hassler 3104 (B, destroyed)
    • Lectotype: G (G00306710)
    • Isolectotypes: G (G00306711, G00306712, G00306713, G00306714), K (K000532497), P (P00325762), NY (00139112), UC (UC950837))
      • Designated by Morton (1976:149), second step by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Paraguay. Cordillera: San Bernardino
  • Solanum calvum Bitter (1913b:81)
    • Holotype: E. Palmer 60 [pro parte, see Särkinen et al. (2018) for details] (UPS)
    • Isotypes: BM (BM001017192), MO (MO-159620, MO-568722), NY (00138967, 00759880), YU (YU065319)
    • Type locality: Mexico. Baja California: Guadalupe Island
  • Solanum depilatum Bitter (1913b:88)
    • Holotype: G. Paroisse 10 (P00338747, P)
    • Type locality: Madagascar. Toliara: Fort Dauphin [anchorage]
  • Solanum imerinense Bitter (1913a:566)
    • Lectotype: J.M. Hildebrandt 3796 (M-0105626, M)
    • Isolectotypes: CORD (CORD00006927), P (P00338727, P00338738), BM (BM000887188)
      • designated by Edmonds (2012:136)
    • Type locality: Type. Madagascar. Antananarivo: "Central Madagaskar, Imerina"
  • Solanum sancti-thomae Bitter (1913a:560, "Sancti Thomae")
    • Holotype: F. Quintas & A. Moller 47 (B, destroyed; COI, lost)
    • Type locality: São Tome and Principe: São Tome
  • Solanum nodiflorum var. sapucayense Chodat (1916:150)
    • Holotype: R. Chodat & W. Vischer 46 (G00306708, G)
    • Type locality: Paraguay. Paraguarí: Sapucay [i.e. en:Sapucaí]
  • Solanum nigrum var. pauciflorum Liou (1935:454)
  • Solanum pauciflorum (Liou) H.Y.Zhang (1999:131) nom. inval. (Art. 41.5)
    • Lectotype: S.K. Lau 209 (BM000942311, BM)
    • Isolectotype: A, LU?, K (K001152446)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: China. Hainan: Ngai District, Yeung Ling Shan
  • Solanum merrillianum Liou (1935:455)
  • Solanum suffruticosum var. merrillianum (Liou) C.Y.Wu & S.C.Huang, Fl. Hainan. 3:586. 1974. (S. suffruticosum = S. villosum)
    • Holotype: W.T. Tsang 412 (acc. no. 15911, LU)
    • Isotypes: A (A00077824, A00395157), E (E00718800), MO (acc. # 1037660), S (acc. # S-G-5703)
    • Type locality: China. Hainan: Thai Hang, Shek Kuet Ts’o, Lin Fa Shan and vicinity, Lam Ko District
  • Solanum photeinocarpum Nakam. & Odash. (in Odashima, 1935:54)
    • Lectotype: K. Odashima 17720 (TAI)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Taiwan. “Taihoku” [Taipei?]
  • Solanum pachystylum Polg. (in Allan 1940:280)
    • Holotype: H.H. Allan s.n. (8954, CHR)
    • Isotypes: CHR (8954 A, 8954 B)
    • Type locality: New Zealand. North Island: Auckland, Mt. Wellington, near Auckland, Plant Research Station
  • Solanum nodiflorum subsp. nutans R.J.F.Hend. (1974:30)
    • Holotype: R.J.F. Henderson 518 (AQ0023172, BRI)
    • Isotypes: K (K001080528), NSW (NSW568939), MEL (MEL2289999A)
    • Type locality: Australia. Queensland: Brisbane, Dept. Primary, Industrial grounds

References[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

Many names in Särkinen et al. (2018) can't be identified down to specific languages, as they are only sorted geographically.

azərbaycanca: amerika quşüzümü
English: Glossy Nightshade, Small-flowered Nightshade, Black Nightshade
français: morelle d'amérique, brède bleu
Gagana Samoa: magalo
Hawaiʻi: popolo, popolohua
Malagasy: anamama
日本語: 光果龍葵
português: maria-pretinha
Runa Simi: Qhaya-qhaya
suomi: amerikanmustakoiso
svenska: Amerikansk nattskatta
中文: 少花龙葵, 光枝木龙葵
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Solanum americanum on Wikimedia Commons.