Solanum villosum

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Solanum villosum

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Solanales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Solanoideae
Tribus: Solaneae
Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: S. subg. Solanum
Sectio: S. sect. Solanum
Species: Solanum villosum

Name[edit]

Solanum villosum Mill. (1768: 2 s.v. "Solanum")

  • Lectotype: Herb. Miller s.n. (BM000942575, BM)
    • Designated by Henderson (1974: 54).
  • Type locality: Cultivated in Chelsea Physic Garden from "Barbadoes where it is supposed to grow naturally"

Synonyms[edit]

(After Särkinen et al., 2018, with isonyms removed)

  • Heterotypic
  • Solanum nigrum var. villosum L. (1753: 186)
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. villosum (L.) Ehrh. (1780: 218)
  • Solanum villosum (L.) Willd. (1787: 87), nom. illeg. non S. villosum Mill. (1768)
  • Solanum vulgatum var. luteum Spenn. (1826: 427), nom. illeg. superfl.
  • Solanum nigrum var. croceum Neilr. (1858: 535), nom. illeg. superfl.
    • Lectotype: "Solanum annuum hirsutus, baccis luteis", Dillenius, Hortus Elthamensis 2: 366, t. 274, f. 353. 1732
      • Designated by Henderson (1974: 54).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in England, at James Sherard's garden in Eltham.
  • Solanum luteum Mill. (1768: 3 s.v. "Solanum")
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. luteum (Mill.) Kirschl. (1852: 532)
  • Solanum morella subsp. luteum (Mill.) Rouy (1908: 366), S. morella = S. nigrum L.
    • Lectotype: Herb. Miller s.n. (BM000942567, BM)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 214).
    • Type locality: "Solanum officinarum lacinis luteis 1735, G.B. 166", cultivated in England at the Chelsea Physic Garden, seeds said to come from America.
  • Solanum rurum Mill. (1768: 4 s.v. "Solanum")
  • Solanum nigrum var. rubrum (Mill.) Aiton (1789: 249)
  • Solanum erythraeum Dunal (1813: 238), nom. illeg. superfl.
    • Because no reference is made to Linnaeus' S. rubrum (1767: 173), this is presumed to be a new name, although technically illegitimate (Särkinen et al., 2018). Linnaeus' name, without original material and hard to pinpoint clearly to a species, has never been taken up and is proposed for rejection (Knapp et al., 2017).
    • Lectotype: Herb. Miller s.n. (BM000942563, BM)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 215).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in England at the Chelsea Physic Garden, origin said to be the West Indies
  • Solanum aegyptiacum J.F.Gmel. (1791: 385)
    • Lectotype: Herb. P. Forsskål 420 (C10013600, C)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Egypt. "circa Cairo", 1762
  • Solanum villosum Lam. (1794: 18), nom. illeg. non S. villosum Mill. (1768)
  • Solanum nigrum f. villosum (Lam.) Döll (1843: 413)
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. villosum (Lam.) Hartm. (1846: 34)
    • Because S. luteum was considered the correct name for a long time, many combinations were made using Lamarck's name as a basionym instead of Miller's, adding to the nomenclatural confusion surrounding this species. (Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Lectotype: s.c. s.n. (P00357624, P-LA)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 214) as holotype.
    • Type locality: France. Ex Gallia australi, etc. ["From southern France, etc."]
  • Solanum villosum Moench (1794: 474), nom. illeg. non S. villosum Mill. (1768)
    • Type: "C. Moench s.n." (no original material located, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Type locality: Germany. Hessen [?]
  • Solanum alatum Moench (1794: 474), nom. et typ. cons. prop
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. alatum (Moench) Čelak. (1871: 309)
  • Solanum nigrum var. alatum (Moench) Fiori (1926: 311)
  • Solanum villosum subsp. alatum (Moench) Edmonds (1977: 171)
    • Lectotype: "Solanum nigrum vulgare simile, caulis exasperatis", Dillenius, Hortus Elthamensis 2: 368, t. 275, f. 356. 1732.
      • Epitype: Herb. Dillenius 443 (OXF)
        • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 215)
    • Proposed conserved type: K.H. Rechinger 29684 (acc. # 1972-0017910, W)
      • Proposed by Knapp et al. (2017). Despite Knapp et al.'s statement to the contrary, under their own argument that Edmonds' type is a neotype, it can be directly superseded for conflicting with the protologue (art. 9.18).
    • Type locality for K.H. Rechinger 29684: Pakistan. Balochistan: Quetta, 30 km E Gumbaz, 1050 m, 30°02'N, 69°00'E, 17 May 1965
  • Solanum humile Bernh. ex Willd. (1809: 236)
  • Solanum luteovirescens C.C.Gmel. (1826: 177), nom. illegit. superfl.
  • Solanum nigrum f. humile (Bernh. ex Willd.) Döll (1843: 413)
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. humile (Bernh. ex Willd.) Hartm. (1846: 34))
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. luteovirescens (C.C.Gmelin) Kirschl. (1852: 532)
  • Solanum olivaceum Kit. ex Kanitz (1863: 440), nom. illeg. superfl.
  • Solanum nigrum var. humile (Bernh. ex Willd.) Boiss. (1879: 284)
    • Neotype: s.c. s.n. (B-W04367 sheet 2, B)
    • Isoneotype: B (B-W04367 sheet 1)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012: 132) as lectotype.
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Berlin Botanic Garden, from "Europa australi" [southern Europe]
  • Solanum miniatum Bernh. ex Willd. (1809: 236)
  • Solanum nigrum var. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Fr. (1823: 111)
  • Solanum villosum var. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Kostel. (1824: 34)
  • Solanum puniceum C.C.Gmel. (1826: 176), nom. illegit. superfl.
  • Solanum villosum subvar. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Germ. & Wedd. (1842: 91)
  • Solanum villosum f. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Döll (1843: 413)
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Hartm. (1846: 34))
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. puniceum (C.C.Gmelin) Kirschl. (1852: 532)
  • Solanum villosum subsp. puniceum (Kirschl.) Edmonds (1979: 215)
  • Solanum villosum subsp. miniatum (Bernh. ex Willd.) Edmonds (1984: 166)
    • Type information from Edmonds (1979). Although other names in Särkinen et al. (2018) refer to Solanum miniatum as though it were treated in that publication, this name is missing from the synonymy of S. villosum there.
    • Lectotype: Herb. Willdenow 4366 (B-W04366 sheet 3, B)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 215).
    • Type locality: not listed.
  • Solanum suffruticosum Schousb. ex Willd. (1809: 236)
  • Solanum nigrum var. suffruticosum (Schousb. ex Willd.) Moris (1859: 148), Fl. Sardoa 3: 148. 1858–1859.
  • Solanum nigrum var. induratum Boiss. (1879: 284), nom. illeg. superfl.
    • Lectotype: Herb. Willdenow s.n. (B-W04363010, B)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Berlin Botanic Garden, said to be originally from "Barbaria" [northern Africa west of Egypt]
  • Solanum incertum Dunal (1813: 155)
    • Lectotype: Rheede von Draakestein, Hortus Malabaricus 10: t. 73. 1690.
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: "Nelen-Tsjunda" from Malabar [western India]
  • Solanum kitaibelii Schult. (1814: 395)
  • Solanum incanum Kit. ex Kanitz (1863: 440), nom. illeg. superfl. et non S. incanum L.
    • Lectotype: s.c. s.n. [P. Kitaibel 349] (M-0166013, M)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 214).
    • Type locality: Hungary. "Pannonia"
  • Solanum flavum Kit. ex Schult. (1814: 394)
  • Solanum nigrum var. luteum Neilr. (1858: 535)
    • Lectotype: s.c. s.n. [P. Kitaibel] (B-W04421010, B)
    • Isolectotypes (probable): BP (herb. Kit. fasc. IX: 105, 3 sheets), M (M0164200)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 214), as holotype.
    • Type locality: Hungary. "Pannonia".
  • Solanum ochroleucum Bastard (1814: 20)
  • Solanum nigrum subvar. ochroleucum (Bastard) Coss. & Germ. (1842: 91)
  • Solanum villosum subsp. ochroleucum (Bastard) Nyman (1881: 526)
    • Lectotype: s.c. s.n. (G00144474, G-DC)
    • Isolectotype: ANG (acc. # 2006.213)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 214), as holotype.
    • Type locality: France. Pays de la Loire: Maine-et-Loire, Anjou [Angers], 1813.
  • Solanum nigrum f. angulosum Döll (1843: 413)
    • Syntypes: "Bei Carlsruhe beim Linkenheimer Thore, A. Braun", "Bei Philippsburg, Stud. Bauer", "Bei Mannheim, Oppenheim, J.C. Döll" (no specimens cited; no original material located, not found at KR, Särkinen et al., 2018).
    • Solanum sinaicum Boiss. (1849: 135)
    • Lectotype: E. Boissier s.n.. (G00343377, G)
    • Isolectotype: DD, K (K000759386)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Egypt. [Sinai] "Arabia petraea, Wadi Sheikh", Mar 1846
  • Solanum plebeium A.Rich. (1850: 100)
    • Lectotype: R.Q. Dillon & A. Petit s.n. (P00341983, P)
    • Isolectotype: P (P00341984)
      • Designated by Lester (1997: 289).
    • Type locality: ["Abyssinia"], Prov. Chiré [Shire?]
  • Solanum ochroleucum var. flavum Dunal (1852: 56)
    • Lectotype: J. Sartori 86 (G00144471, G-DC)
      • Designated by Edmonds (1979: 216).
    • Type locality: Greece. Peloponnese: "in vineis agri Argolidis" [i.e. Argolis]
  • Solanum miniatum var. stenopetalum Dunal (1852: 56)
    • Lectotype: J.L. Castagne s.n. (G00144562, G-DC)
    • Isolectotype: MPU
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018), who incorrectly cite the same specimen number as for var. villosissimum.
    • Type locality: France. Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes: Isère, "circa Montaud prope Salon"
  • Solanum miniatum var. villosissimum Dunal (1852: 56)
    • Lectotype: A.P. de Candolle s.n. (G-DC)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: France. Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: Var, Miraval, a l'entre de la grotte, 8 May 1807.
  • Solanum miniatum var. subserratum Dunal (1852: 57)
    • Lectotype: s.c. [26] (MPU091575, MPU)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: "Arabie"
  • Solanum minutiflorum Dunal (1852: 58)
    • Lectotype: A. Richard s.n. (G00144587, G-DC)
    • Isolectotype: P (P00582961)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: France. Hyères
  • Solanum nilagiricum Schltdl. (1855: 484)
    • Type: No specimen cited or located (Särkinen et al.,2018).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Germany at Halle [originally from Nilgiri Hills, India?]
  • Solanum suffruticosum Schousb. ex Lange (1855: 361), nom. illeg. non S. suffruticosum Schousb. ex Willd. (1809)
    • Lectotype: s.c. s.n. (C10019275, C)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Denmark at Copenhagen, seeds from "Pontevedra Galleciae", Aug 1852 [Galicia, Spain], 1855
  • Solanum nigrum var. luteum Döll (1859: 767, nom. illeg. non S. n. var. luteum Neilr.
    • Type: No specimen cited or located (Särkinen et al.,2018).
    • Type locality: Germany. "in der Carlsruher Gegend bei Dachslanden und Mühlburg, bei Schwetzingen, Mannheim und Dossenheim".
  • Solanum canescens Kit. ex Kanitz (1863: 440), nom. illeg. non S. canescens Blume (= Solanum insanum L.).
  • Solanum flavum Kit. ex Kanitz (1863: 440), nom. illeg non S. flavum Kit. ex Schult.
    • Lectotype: P. Kitaibel s.n. ([herb. Kit. fasc. IX: 105, BP, numbered sheet only)
    • Isolectotype: BP (unlabelled sheets from same fasc.)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Hungary. "E Cottu Thurócz. v Barodiensi"
  • Solanum pseudovillosum Schur (1866: 477)
    • Type: No specimen located (Särkinen et al.,2018).
  • Solanum patens Lowe (1872: 74)
    • Lectotype: R.T. Lowe 547a (BM000083209, BM)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012: 133); other duplicates of Lowe 547 have different collection data and are not type material (Särkinen et al., 2018).
    • Type locality: Portugal. Madeira: Ribeiria do Sta. Luzia, 1 Jul 1833
  • Solanum villosum var. velutinum Lowe (1872: 76, "velutina")
    • Lectotype: R.T. Lowe 722 (BM000056199, BM)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Portugal. Madeira: Valle [garden], 24 Aug 1831
  • Solanum villosum var. laevigatum Lowe (1872: 78, "laevigata")
    • Lectotype: R.T. Lowe s.n. (BM000847650, BM)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000414066)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012: 133).
    • Type locality: Portugal. "Lisbon, court of the Museum [Jan 1865]"
  • Solanum hildebrandtii [[A.Braun & C.D.Bouché|A.Braun & C.D.Bouché]] (1874: 18)
    • Lectotype: J.M. Hildebrandt 865 (BM000907531, BM)
    • Isolectotype: L (L.2879554)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012: 133).
    • Type locality: Somalia. Saanag: Yafir, Ahlgebirge [i.e. Karin Yafir, Ahl Mountains, N Somalia]
  • Solanum plebeium var. brachysepalum Bitter (1913: 564)
    • Holotype: H. Ellenbeck 358 (B, destroyed. No duplicate known, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Type locality: Ethiopia. Oromia: "Gallahochland, Ego", 2000 m
  • Solanum plebeium var. subtile Bitter (1913: 564)
    • Holotype: H. Ellenbeck 462 (B, destroyed. No duplicate known, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Type locality: Ethiopia. Harari: "Harar, Hararmaja-See"
  • Solanum nigrum f. glabrum Chiov. (1916: 128)
    • Holotype: G. Paoli 935 (FT003070, FT)
    • Type locality: Somalia. Baay: Berdale [i.e. Berdaale], 12 Oct 1913
  • Solanum nigrum var. sancti-marini Pamp. (1920: 116)
    • Type: (no specimens cited; no original material located, Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum nigrum var. aurantium Maire (1928: 139))
    • Lectotype: R. Maire s.n. (RAB-44657, RAB)
    • Isolectotype: MPU (MPU001957), P (P00489756])
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Morocco. Souss-Massa: Anti-Atlas Mountains "Djebel Inter à Talaïnt" [Djebel Inter à Talguit (=Tafraoute?)], 600 m, 4 Apr 1922.
  • Solanum villosum var. miniatibaccatum C.H.Blom (1935: 207)
  • Solanum luteum var. miniatibaccatum (C.H.Blom) Hyl. (1945: 279)
  • Solanum luteum f. miniatibaccatum (C.H.Blom) Wessely (1960: 315)
    • Lectotype: C. Blom s.n. (GB)
    • Isolectotype: LD, S, UPS.
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Type locality: Sweden. Göteborgstrakten: Göteborg, som ogräs i Botaniska Trädgården, 1935.
  • Solanum transcaucasicum Pojark. (1955: 332)
    • Holotype: R.f. Hohenacker s.n. (LE)
    • Type locality: Azerbaijan. Lankaran: Talysh, near Tatuni "Talysh bei Tatuni".
  • Solanum olgae Pojark. (1955: 333)
    • Holotype: Fedotov & Gol'bek s.n. (LE)
    • Isotype: LE.
    • Type locality: Uzbekistan. Samarkandaya Oblast', [Tadzkikistan, Hissar, near Kschtut in protologue] Kschtut, on the road to Sherbut.
  • Solanum zelenetzkii Pojark. (1955: 336)
    • Holotype: K. Golde s.n. (LE)
    • Type locality: Ukraine: Crimea, "Tauria Australis", Jalta [Yalta in protologue], Oreanda, 21 Aug 1906.
  • Solanum woronowii Pojark. (1955: 337)
    • Holotype: A. Pojarkova 6 (LE)
    • Type locality: Georgia. Abkhazia AR: Abkhazia, "Gagry", 30 Oct 1954.
  • Solanum luteum var. calvum Wessely (1960: 315)
    • Holotype: I. Wessely 214 (GFW)
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Germany at Greifswald, seeds from Hort. Bot. Marseille.
  • Solanum luteum var. procerum Wessely (1960: 315)
    • Holotype: I. Wessely 320 (GFW)
    • Type locality: Cultivated in Germany at Greifswald, seeds from München Botanical Garden, 1957.
  • Solanum purpureilineatum Sabnis & Bhatt (1972: 258)
    • Holotype: S.D. Sabnis 2762, 2763 (two-sheet holotype, BARO)
      • Singh and Garg (2018) designate Sabnis 2762 as lectotype, but Särkinen et al. argue the two sheets are a single gathering under ICN Art. 8.3 Ex. 4. Singh and Garg also argue that the taxon represents a distinct species, but do not consider S. villosum when making their comparison.
    • Type locality: India. Gujarat: Baroda District, Baroda, L.V. Palace compound, 2 Oct 1960.
  • Solanum carmanicum Schönb.-Tem. (1972: 8)
    • Holotype: K.H. Rechinger & F. Rechinger 3630 (1958-0003176, W)
    • Isotype: E (E00251353), G (G00343074), US (00992058, acc. # 2316288)
    • Type locality: Iran. Kerman: Bam, ca. 900 m, 7 May 1948.

References[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

dansk: Højrød Natskygge
Deutsch: Rotbeeren-Nachtschatten, Gelbbeeren-Nachtschatten, Gelbrotbeeren-Nachtschatten, Flügel-Nachtschatten
English: Red-Berried Nightshade, Red Nightshade
suomi: Myskikoiso
français: morelle velue, morelle poilue, morelle orangée
italiano: morella rossa
Nederlands: Donsnachtschade
polski: Psianka Kosmata
slovenščina: Lulok Žltý, Lulok Krídlatý
svenska: Gul Nattskatta
For more multimedia, look at Solanum villosum on Wikimedia Commons.