Bacteria (classifications)

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Main Page
Regio: Bacteria

Name[edit]

1. Bacteria sensu Cohn, 1872b, 1872c [= Prokaryotae, excluding Cyanobacteria]

  • Synonyms
    • Schizomycetes Nägeli, 1857
    • Bacteriaceae Cohn, 1872a
    • Schizomycetaceae de Toni and Trevisan, 1889
    • Bacteriophyta Schussnig, 1925

2. Bacteria sensu Cavalier-Smith 1981, 1983, 1998, Margulis & Chapman, 2009 [= Prokaryotae]

3. Bacteria sensu Woese et al., 1990 [= Prokaryotae, excluding Archaea]

  • Synonyms
    • Eubacteria sensu Woese & Fox, 1977
    • Neobacteria Möhn, 1984

Classifications[edit]

Cohn (1872b)[edit]

Cohn, F. 1872. Ueber Bakterien, die kleinsten lebenden Wesen. Lüdritz’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Carl Habel, Berlin, [1]. American reprint (1889): [2].

Bakterien

  • Micrococcus
  • Bacterium
  • Bacillus
  • Vibrio
  • Spirillum
  • Spirochaete

Cohn (1872c)[edit]

Cohn, F. 1872. Untersuchungen über Bacterien. Beiträge zur Biologie der Pflanzen, 1 (2): 127–224, [3], [4]. Translation at: Brock, T.D. (1998). Milestones in Microbiology: 1556 to 1940. ASM Press, p. 210 (PDF)

Bacterien

  • Tribe 1. Sphaerobacteria (sphere bacteria)
    • Genus 1. Micrococcus char. emend.
  • Tribe 2. Microbacteria (rod bacteria)
    • Genus 2. Bacterium char. emend.
  • Tribe 3. Desmobacteria (filament bacteria)
    • Genus 3. Bacillus n. g.
    • Genus 4. Vibrio char. emend.
  • Tribe 4. Spirobacteria (corkscrew bacteria)
  • Genus 5. Spirillum Ehrenberg
  • Genus 6. Spirochaete Ehrenberg

Magnin (1880)[edit]

Magnin, A. 1880. The Bacteria. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. Translated by George M. Sternberg. [5]

Bacteria

  • Spherobacteria
  • Microbacteria
  • Desmobacteria
  • Spirobacteria
  • other colorless Schizophytes

de Bary (1884)[edit]

de Bary, A. 1884. Vergleichende Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoa und Bakterien. Leipzig. [6]

Bacterien oder Schizomyceten

  • Endospore Bacterien
  • Arthrospore Bacterien

Hueppe (1886)[edit]

Hueppe, F. 1886. Die Formen der Bakterien und ihre Beziehungen zu de Gattungen und Arten. Wiesbaden, p. 140. [7]

Bakterien

  • A. Endospore Bakterien
    • Kokkaceen
    • Bakteriaceen
    • Spirobakteriaceen
  • B. Arthrospore Bakterien
    • Arthro-Kokkaceen
    • Arthro-Bakteriaceen
    • Arthro-Spirobakteriaceen
    • Leptotricheen
    • Cladotricheen

Haeckel (1889)[edit]

Haeckel, E. 1889. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte, 8th ed, [8]. See p. 452, 453, 462, 508.

  • Protistenreich
    • Protophyta (Protista vegetalia)
      • Klass I. Phytarcha
        • Phytomonera
          • Ordnung 1. Probiontes
        • Chromaceae
          • Ordnung 2. Chroococceae
          • Ordnung 3. Nostochineae
      • Klass II. Diatomeae
      • Klass III. Cosmariae (Desmidieae)
      • Klass IV. Palmellariae (Palmellaceae)
      • Klass V. Siphoneae (Coeloblastae)
    • Protozoa (Protista animalia)
      • Zoarcha (Zoocytoda)
        • Zoomonera
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
        • Bacteria
          • Sphaerobacteria
          • Rhabdobacteria
      • Cytarcha
        • Lobosa (Amoebina)
        • Gregarinae (Sporozoa)
      • Infusoria
        • Flagellata (Mastigophora)
        • Ciliata
        • Acinetae (Suctoria)
      • Rhizopoda
        • Mycetozoa (Myxomycetes)
        • Heliozoa
        • Thalamaria (Foraminifera)
        • Radiolaria
  • Pflanzenreich
  • Thierreich

Engler (1892)[edit]

Engler, Adolf. 1892. Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik [Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, in further editions]. Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlag, Berlin, 1st ed., 143 p. [9]

Pflanzen

Haeckel (1894)[edit]

Systematische phylogenie, 3 vols (vol. 1, Protisten und Pflanzen, 1894; vol. 2, Invertebrata, 1896; vol. 3, Vertebrata, 1895). [10].

[Vol. 1, p. 90-91:]

  • Pflanzen
    • Protophyta (Protista plasmodoma) [Vol. 1, p. 96]
      • Archephyta (Progonella)
        • Probiontes
        • Chromaceae (Phycochromaceae)
      • Algariae (Paulosporata)
        • Paulotomeae
        • Conjugatae
        • Diatomeae
      • Algettae (Zoosporata)
        • Mastigota
        • Melethallia
        • Siphoneae
    • Metaphyta (Histones plasmodomi) [Vol. 1, p. 256]
  • Thieren
    • Protozoa (Protista plasmophaga) [Vol. 1, p. 138]
      • Archezoa (= Zoarchega)
        • Bacteria (= Bactromonera)
          • Coccillida
          • Bacillida
          • Spirillida
        • Zoomonera (= Monera s. str.)
          • Lobomonera
          • Rhizomonera
      • Fungilli (= Sporozoa)
      • Rhizopoda
      • Infusoria
    • Metazoa (Histones plasmophagi)

Hueppe (1896)[edit]

Hueppe, F. 1896. Naturwissenschaftliche Einfuhrung in die Bakteriologie. C. W. Kreidels Verlag, Wiesbaden, p. 25. [11] Principles of bacteriology, translation by E. O. Jordan. Open Court Publishing Co., Chicago, 1899, p. 37 [12]

Bakterien

  • Coccaceae
  • Bacteriaceae
  • Spirobacteriaceae
  • Leptothricheae
  • Cladothricheae

Fischer (1895)[edit]

Fischer, Alfred 1895. Untersuchungen ülber Bakterien. Jahrbücher für wissenschaftliche Botanik, 27, 1–163, (PDF)

Bakterien

  • Haplobacteriaceï
  • Trichobacteriaceï

Fischer (1897)[edit]

Fischer, A. Vorlesungen über Bakterien. 1897. 1st ed., p. 32 [13] (2nd ed., 1903).

Bakterien

  • Haplobacterinae
  • Trichobacterinae

Migula (1897–1900)[edit]

Migula, W. 1897–1900. System der Bakterien. Vol. 1, 1897 [14]. Vol. 2, 1900, [15].

Bacteria

  • Eubacteria
  • Thiobacteria

Smith (1905)[edit]

Smith, Erwin F. 1905. Bacteria in relation to plant diseases. Vol. 1. [16]

Bacteria

  • Eubacteria
  • Thiobacteria
  • Myxobacteria

Heim (1906)[edit]

Heim, Ludwig. 1906. Lehrbuch der Bakteriologie. 3rd ed., p. 303. [17]..

  • Bakterien (Schizomyzeten)
    • Mikrokokken, Bazillen, Spirillen
  • Tricomyzeten
  • Blastomyzeten
  • Hyphomyzeten

Lotsy (1907)[edit]

Lotsy, J. P. 1907. Vortrage uber botanische Stammesgeschichte. Vol. 1. Algen und Pilsen, p. 329, 341, [18].

Schizophyten

  • Schizophyceen
  • Bakterien
    • Haplobacterinae
    • Trichobacterinae
  • Myxobakterien

Kolle & Hetch (1911)[edit]

Kolle, W. & Hetch, H. 1911. Die experimentelle Bakteriologie, 3rd ed., p. 17. [19]

Thallophyten

  • Pilze
    • Höhere Pilze
    • Spaltpilze oder Bakterien
      • Kokken
      • Bazilen
      • Spirillen
  • Algen, Flechten
    • Spaltalgen
      • Schwefelbakterien [sulfur bacteria]
      • Eisenbakterien [iron bacteria]
      • Streptothricheen

Schneider (1912)[edit]

Schneider, A. 1912. Pharmaceutical Bacteriology. [20]

Bacteria (Schizomycetes)

  • Coccaceae
  • Bacteriaceae
  • Spirillaceae
  • Spirochaetaceae
  • Mycobacteriaceae
  • Chlamydobacteriaceae
  • Beggiatoaceae

Engler & Gilg (1919)[edit]

Engler, A. & E. Gilg. 1919. Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 8th ed., Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlag, Berlin, 395 p. [21]

  • Schizophyta
    • Schizomycetes (Bacteria)
      • Eubacteria
      • Thiobacteria
    • Schizophyceae

Schussnig (1925)[edit]

Schussnig, B. 1925. Betrachtungen über das system der niederen Pflanzen. Verhandl. d. zool. bot. Ges. Wien., Bd. 75, p. 196–272. [22]

Protophyta

  • II. Stamm: Bacteriophyta
    • 1. Klasse: Eubacteria
    • 2. Klasse: Mycobacteria
    • 3. Klasse: Trichobacteria
    • 4. Klasse: Myxobacteria

Kluyver & van Niel (1936)[edit]

Kluyver, A. J., and van Niel, C. B. 1936. Prospects for a natural system of classification of bacteria. Centr. Bakt., II, 94, 369–403. [23]

Bacteria

  • Pseudomonadaceae
  • Micrococcaceae
  • Mycobacteriaceae
  • Bacteriaceae

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). 1960. Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [24]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, deux fascicules, 1540 pages. [25], [26]

Monde vivant

  • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
    • Cyanoschizophytes (= Cyanophycées, Schyzophycées, Myxophycées, ou Algues bleues)
      • Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, Stigonémales, Chamaesiphonales, Nostocales
    • Bactérioschizophytes (= Bactéries, ou Schizomycètes)
      • Hémibactéries, Eubactéries, Virobactéries
  • Eucaryotes

Buchanan et al. (1974)[edit]

Buchanan, R. E. & Gibbons, N. R. (eds.). 1974. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. [27]

Kingdom Prokaryotae

  • Division Photobacteria
    • Class I. Blue-green photobacteria
    • Class II. Red photobacteria
    • Class III. Green photobacteria
  • Division Scotobacteria
    • Class I. The bacteria
    • Class II. Obligate intracellular Scotobacteria in eucaryotic cells (Rickettsias)
    • Class III. Scotobacteria without cell walls (Mollicutes)

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?, [28].

  • Superkingdom Prokaryota
    • Kingdom Bacteria
      • Subkingdom Eubacteria
      • Subkingdom Archaebacteria
  • Superkingdom Eukaryota

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [29], [30]. See Brands (1989–2005), [31]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

Möhn (1984)[edit]

Möhn, E. 1984. System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen. Band 1. Physikalische, chemische und biologische Evolution. Prokaryonta. Eukaryonta (bis Ctenophora). E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, [32]. From Minelli (1993), pp. 215–387, [33].

Superkingdom Prokaryonta

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Woese et al. (1990)[edit]

Woese, C. R., Kandler, O. & Wheelis, M.L. 1990. "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87 (12): 4576–4579. Abstract

  • Archaea
  • Bacteria
  • Eukarya

Holt et al. (1994)[edit]

Holt. J. G., and N. R. Krieg. 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed. The Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, Md. [34], [35]

"Four major categories of bacteria"

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

A revised six-kingdom system of life. (PDF)

Empire or Superkingdom Prokaryota Dougherty, 1957 stat. nov. Allsopp 1969

[* Probably paraphyletic.

† Almost certainly paraphyletic.

‡ All the phyla here should be treated as divisions.

§ Originally treated as separate phyla (Cavalier-Smith, 1992a).]

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed. (2001–2012)[edit]

From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., 5 vols. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY. After Madigan et al. 2012. [36]

Domain Archaea [vol. 1]

Domain Bacteria

Cavalier-Smith (2006a)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2006). Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses. Biology Direct 1: 19, [37].

[*Probably paraphyletic taxa are marked with an asterisk.]

Cavalier-Smith (2006b)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (2006). Cell evolution and Earth history: stasis and revolution. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361 (1470): 969–1006, [38], [39].

Kingdom Bacteria

Garrity et al. (2007)[edit]

Garrity, G.M., Lilburn, T.G., Cole, J.R., Harrison, S.H., Euzeby, J., and Tindall, B.J. 2007. Taxonomic Outline of the Bacteria and Archaea, Release 7.7. Michigan State University Board of Trustees, [40].

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Kingdoms & Domains, 4th ed.

Superkingdom Prokarya

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. 2015. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248 [41]

Superkingdom Prokaryota

Parte (2016)[edit]

Parte, A.C. (2016). List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Created by J.P. Euzéby in 1997. Curated by A.C. Parte since 2013. Avaiable on: http://www.bacterio.net. Retrieved 5 April 2016.

Domain Bacteria

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Buchanan, R. E. 1917. Studies in the Nomenclature and Classification of the Bacteria: II. The Primary Subdivisions of the Schizomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 2 (2): 155–64, [42]
  • Buchanan, R. E. 1925. General systematic bacteriology: history, nomenclature, groups of bacteria. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, [43]
  • Cohn, F. 1872a. Organismen in der Pockenlymphe. Virchows Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, 55 (1), 229–238, [44]
  • Pelentier, B. 2007–2015. Empire Biota: a comprehensive taxonomy, [45]