Prokaryota

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Prokaryota
Superregna: Archaea – Bacteria

Name[edit]

Procaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938

Synonyms

  • Schizophyta Cohn, 1875
  • Akaryonta Novák, 1930
  • Archaiophyta Vilhelm, 1931
  • Plantae holoplastidae Pascher, 1931
  • Monera sensu Copeland, 1938, Barkley, 1939, 1949, Stanier & van Niel, 1941, Whittaker, 1959
  • Anucleobionta Rothmaler, 1948
  • Mychota sensu Barkley, 1949, Copeland, 1956
  • Protophyta sensu Krassilnikov, 1949
  • Akaryobionta Rothmaler, 1951
  • Archezoa sensu Copeland, 1956
  • Prokaryonta Fott, 1959 (according to Round, 1973), Möhn, 1984
  • protocaryotes Chadefaud, 1960
  • Procaryota Christensen, 1962, Allsopp, 1969
  • Procaryotae Murray, 1968, Gibbons & Murray, 1978
  • Procaryonta Novák, 1969
  • Prokaryota Swain, 1969, Fott, 1971, Margulis, 1974, Whittaker & Margulis,1978
  • Procytota Jeffrey, 1971
  • Bacteria sensu Cavalier-Smith 1981, 1983, 1998, Margulis & Chapman, 2009
  • Prokaryotae Parker et al., 1982 [?]
  • Prokarya Margulis, 1996 (not Dougherty, 1957, see Katscher, 2004 and Sapp, 2005)


Classifications[edit]

Chatton (1925)[edit]

Chatton, É. 1925. Pansporella perplexa, amoebiens à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflections sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5–84, [1]. See Kussakin & Drozdov (1994), [2], Katscher (2004), [3].

[p. 76ː]

[p. 77ː]

Pascher (1931)[edit]

Pascher, A. 1931. Systematische Übersicht über die mit Flagellaten in Zusammenhang stehenden Algenreihen und Versuch einer Einreihung dieser Algenstämme in die Stämme des Pflanzenreiches. Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt, 48 (Abteilung II, 2): 317–332, [4].

  • Plantae holoplastideae [p. 330]
    • Cyanophyta
    • Schizomycophyta
  • Plantae euplastideae
    • Chrysophyta
      • Chrysophyceae
      • Diatomeae
      • Heterokontae
    • Phaeophyta
    • Pyrrhophyta
    • Euglenophyta
    • Chlorophyta
    • Charophyta
    • Rhodophyta
    • Bryophyta
    • Pterido-Anthophyta
    • Myxophyta
    • Phycomykophyta
    • Mykophyta

Rothmaler (1948)[edit]

Rothmaler, Werner. 1948. Über das natürliche System der Organismen. Biologisches Zentralblatt. 67: 242–250.

Rothmaler (1951)[edit]

Rothmaler, Werner. 1951. Die Abteilungen und Klassen der Pflanzen. Feddes Rep Spec Nov Reg Veg 3: 256–266, [5], [6].

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (eds.). 1960. Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [7]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [8], [9].

Monde vivant

  • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
    • Cyanoschizophytes (= Cyanophycées, Schyzophycées, Myxophycées, ou Algues bleues)
      • Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, Stigonémales, Chamaesiphonales, Nostocales
    • Bactérioschizophytes (= Bactéries, ou Schizomycètes)
      • Hémibactéries, Eubactéries, Virobactéries
  • Eucaryotes

Murray (1968)[edit]

Murray, R. G. E. 1968. Microbial structure as an aid to microbial classification and taxonomy. SPISY (Faculté des Sciences de l'Université J. E. Purkyne Brno) 34:249–252. From Sapp (2005).

  • Kingdom Procaryotae
  • Kingdom Eucaryotae

Allsopp (1969)[edit]

Allsopp, A. 1969. Phylogenetic relationships of the Procaryota and the origin of the eucaryotic cell. New Phytol. 68:591-612. From Sapp (2005).

  • Kingdom Procaryota
    • Bacteria
    • Cyanophyta
  • Kingdom Eucaryota

Buchanan et al. (1974)[edit]

Buchanan, R. E. & Gibbons, N. R. (eds.). 1974. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 8th edn. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1974, [10].

Kingdom Procaryotae

  • Division Photobacteria
  • Division Scotobacteria
    • Class I. The bacteria
    • Class II. Obligate intracellular Scotobacteria in eucaryotic cells (Rickettsias)
    • Class III. Scotobacteria without cell walls (Mollicutes)

Gibbons & Murray (1978)[edit]

Gibbons, N. E. & Murray, R. G. E. 1978. Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. Int J Syst Bacteriol 28:1–6, (PDF)

Kingdom Procaryotae

Cavalier-Smith (1981)[edit]

Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?, [11].

Parker et al. (1982)[edit]

Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [12], [13]. See Brands (1989–2005), [14]

Superkingdom Prokaryotae

  • Kingdom Virus
    • Bacterial Viruses
    • Plant viruses
    • Vertebrate viruses
    • Invertebrate viruses
  • Kingdom Monera
    • Division Bacteria (Haeckel, 1894)
    • Division Cyanophycota
    • Division Prochlorophycota (Lewin, 1976)

Möhn (1984)[edit]

Möhn, E. (1984). System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen. Band 1. Physikalische, chemische und biologische Evolution. Prokaryonta. Eukaryonta (bis Ctenophora). E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, [15]. From Minelli (1993), pp. 215–387, [16].

Superkingdom Prokaryonta

  • Suprakingdom Archaebacteria
    • Kingdom Archaebacteriobionta
      • Infrakingdom Methanobacteriobionta
        • Phylum Methanococcacea
        • Phylum Methanospirillacea
        • Phylum Methanosarcinacea
        • Phylum Methanobacteriacea
      • Infrakingdom Halobacteriobionta
        • Phylum Halobacteriacea
        • Phylum Halococcacea
      • Infrakingdom Caldariabionta
        • Phylum Sulfolobacea
        • Phylum Thermoplasmatacea
  • Suprakingdom Neobacteria
    • Kingdom Bacteriobionta
      • Infrakingdom Eubacteria
        • Superphylum Grambacteria
          • Phylum Streptococcacea
          • Phylum Clostridiacea
          • Phylum Bacillacea
          • Phylum Mycoplasmatacea
          • Phylum Chlamydiacea
          • Phylum Micrococcacea
          • Phylum Actinomycetacea
        • Superphylum Agrambacteria
          • Phylum Desulfovibrionacea
          • Phylum Rhodobacteriacea
          • Phylum Thiobacillacea
          • Phylum Azotobacteriacea
          • Phylum Pseudomonadacea
          • Phylum Photobacteriacea
          • Phylum Enterobacteriacea
      • Infrakingdom Spirochaetae
        • Phylum Spirochaetacea
      • Infrakingdom Myxobacteria
    • Kingdom Cyanobionta
      • Phylum Cyanophyta
      • Phylum Prochlorophyta

Superkingdom Eukaryonta

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st ed. (1984–1989)[edit]

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 1st ed., 4 vols. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, [17], [18].

Kingdom Procaryotae


Cavalier-Smith (1987)[edit]

Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). The origin of eukaryote and archaebacterial cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 503, 17–54.

Cavalier-Smith (1998)[edit]

A revised six-kingdom system of life (PDF)

Empire or Superkingdom Prokaryota Dougherty 1957 stat. nov. Allsopp 1969

  • Kingdom Bacteria Cohn 1870 stat. nov. Cavalier-Smith 1983 (syn. Procaryotae Murray 1968)
    • Subkingdom Negibacteria Cavalier-Smith 1987
      • Infrakingdom Lipobacteria new infrakingdom
      • Infrakingdom Glycobacteria new infrakingdom
    • Subkingdom Unibacteria new subkingdom
      • Infrakingdom Posibacteria Cavalier-Smith 1987 stat. nov.
      • Infrakingdom Archaebacteria Woese & Fox 1977 stat. nov.

Gupta (1998)[edit]

Gupta, R.S. Protein Phylogenies and Signature Sequences: A Reappraisal of Evolutionary Relationships Among Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 1998; 62: 1435–1491, [19].

Prokaryotes

  • Didermata
  • Monodermata

Kussakin & Drozdov (1998)[edit]

КусакинО Г., ДроздовА. Л. 1998. Филема органического мира. Часть 2. Прокариоты и низшие эукариоты. С.-Петербург: Наука, [20].

Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1998). Phylema of the living beings. Part 2. Prokaryotes and Lower Eukaryotes. Nauka, St. Petersburg (in Russian).

Margulis & Chapman (2009)[edit]

Kingdoms & Domains, 4th ed.

Superkingdom Prokarya

  • Kingdom Bacteria (Prokaryotae, Procaryotae, Monera)
    • Subkingdom or domain Archaea (= Archaebacteria)
      • Division Mendosicutes
        • Phylum Euryarchaeota
        • Phylum Crenarchaeota
    • Subkingdom or domain Eubacteria
      • Division Gracilicutes
        • Phylum Proteobacteria
        • Phylum Spirochaetae
        • Phylum Bacteroides–Saprospirae
        • Phylum Cyanobacteria
        • Phylum Chloroflexa
        • Phylum Chlorobia
      • Division Tenericutes
        • Phylum Aphragmabacteria
      • Division Firmicutes
        • Phylum Endospora
        • Phylum Pirellulae
        • Phylum Actinobacteria
        • Phylum Deinococci
        • Phylum Thermotogae

Ruggiero et al. (2015)[edit]

Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M. D. & Kirk, P. M. (2015). A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248, [21].

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Chatton, E. (1925). Pansporella perplexa. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Ann. Sci. Nat. Zool. 10e serie, VII:1–84
  • Chatton, E. (1937/1938). Titre et travaux scientifique (1906-1937) de Edouard Chatton. Sette, Sottano, Italy
  • Christensen, T. (1962). Alger. In: T.W. Böcher, M. Lange, and T. Sørensen (eds.). Botanik. Bind II. Systematisk botanik. Nr. 2, 1–178. I Kommission hos Munksgaard, Copenhagen, [22]
  • Fott, B. (1959). Algenkunde. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 482 p. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. Academia Praha, 1956, [23]
  • Fott, B. (1971). Algenkunde. 2nd ed. VEB Fischer, Jena, 581 pp., [24]. Translation of: Sinice a řasy. 2nd ed., Academia Praha, 515 p., 1967, [25]
  • Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291–299. See Brands, S.J. (1989–2015), [26]
  • Katscher, F. (2004). The history of the terms Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Protist, 155(2), 257–263, [27]
  • Margulis, L. (1974a). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1–41 [28]
  • Margulis, L. (1974b). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45–78.
  • Margulis, L. (1996). Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: phylogenetic classification of life. PNAS, 93(3), 1071-1076, (PDF)
  • Novák, F. A. (1930). Systematická botanika. Praha
  • Novák, V. J. A. (1969) Historický vývoj organismů. Praha, [29]
  • Rothmaler, W. (1948). Über das natürliche System der Organismen. Biologisches Zentralblatt 67: 242–250
  • Rothmaler, W, (1951). Die Abteilungen und Klassen der Pflanzen. Feddes Repert 3: 256266, Abstract
  • Round, F. E. (1973). The Biology of the Algae. 2nd ed., Edward Arnold, London
  • Sapp, J. (2005). The prokaryote-eukaryote dichotomy: meanings and mythology. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, 69(2), 292–305, [30]
  • Sapp, J. (2010). Two faces of the prokaryote concept. International Microbiology 9: 163–172, (PDF)
  • Swain, F. M. 1969. Paleomicrobiology. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 23:455-472, [31]
  • Vilhelm, J. (1931). Archaiophyta a algophyta: Soustavný přehled prvorostů a řasorostů. Praha
  • Whittaker, R. H. (1959). On the broad classification of organisms. Quarterly Review of Biology 34: 210–226, [32]
  • Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18

The prokaryotes[edit]

  • Starr, M.P., Stolp, H., Trüper, H.G., Balows, A., & Schlegel, H.G. (eds.) The prokaryotes: a handbook on habitats, isolation and identification of bacteria, 1st ed., 2 vols. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 1981.
  • Balows, A., Trüper, H.G., Dworkin, M., Harder, W. & Schleifer, K.-H. (eds.). The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria: ecophysiology, isolation, identification, applications, 2nd ed., 4 vols. Springer-Verlag, New York. 1991
  • Dworkin, M., Falkow, S., Rosenberg, E., Schleifer, K.-H. & Stackebrandt, E. (eds.). The prokaryotes: a handbook on the biology of bacteria, 2nd ed., 7 vols. Springer-Verlag, New York. 2006.
  • Rosenberg, E., DeLong, E.F., Stackebrandt, E., Lory, S. & Thompson, F. (eds.). The prokaryotes, 4th ed., 11 vols. Springer-Verlag, New York. 2013–2014.