Schizomycetes

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Name[edit]

Schizomycetes Nägeli, 1857

Circumscriptional synonyms

  • Bacteriaceae Cohn, 1872a
  • Bacteria Cohn, 1872b, 1872c
  • Schizomycetaceae de Toni and Trevisan, 1889
  • Bacteriophyta Schussnig, 1925

Classifications[edit]

Nägeli (1857)[edit]

Nägeli, C. Über die neue Krankheit der Seidenraupe und verwandte Organismen [On the new disease in the silkworm and related organisms]. Botanische Zeitung, 1857, 15: 760–761, [1].

Schizomycetes

  • Nosema bombyces
  • Umbina aceti
  • Bacterium
  • Vibrio
  • Spirillum
  • Hygrocrocis
  • Sarcina

Cohn (1872a)[edit]

Cohn, F. (1872). Organismen in der Pockenlymphe. Virchows Archiv für pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für klinische Medizin, 55 (1), 229-238, [2].

Schizomyceten

  • Bacteriaceae

Zopf (1883)[edit]

Zopf, W. (1883). Die Spaltpilze, 1st ed.

Spaltpilze (Schizomyceten)

  • Coccaceen
  • Bacteriaceen
  • Leptothricheen
  • Cladothricheen

de Bary (1884)[edit]

de Bary, A. (1884). Vergleichende Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoa und Bakterien. Leipzig, [3].

Bacterien oder Schizomyceten

  • Endospore Bacterien
  • Arthrospore Bacterien

Schröter (1889-1908)[edit]

Schröter, J. Die Pilze. In: Cohn's Kryptogamen-Flora von Schlesien. Vol. 3.1 (1889), [4]. Vol. 3.2 (1908), [5], [6]

Fungi [p. 87-91]

  • Myxomycetes
  • Schizomycetes
    • Cocobacteria
    • Eubacteria
    • Desmobacteria
  • Eumycetes

de Toni & Trevisan (1889)[edit]

de Toni, J. B. & Trevisan, V. (1889). Schizomycetaceae. In: Saccardo, P. A. (ed.). Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum, vol. 8, p. 923, [7].

Schizomycetaceae

  • Subfamily Trichogenae
  • Subfamily Baculogenae
  • Subfamily Coccogenae

Engler (1892)[edit]

Engler, Adolf (1892). Syllabus der Vorlesungen über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik [Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, in further editions]. Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlag, Berlin, 1st ed., 143 p., [8].

Pflanzen

Migula (1894)[edit]

Migula, W. (1894). Ueber ein neues System der Bakterien. Arbeiten aus dem Bakteriologischen Institut der Technischen Hochschule zu Karlsruhe, 1, Hft. 2, 235-238, [9].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteria
  • Order Thiobacteria

Lehmann & Neumann (1896)[edit]

Lehmann, K.B. and Neumann, R. Atlas und Grundriss der Bakteriologie und Lehrbuch der speciellen bakteriologischen Diagnostik, 1st ed., vol. 1, [10], vol. 2, [11]. J.F. Lehmann, München, 1896. English translation, 1897, [12].

Spaltpilze

  • Coccaceae, Bacteriaceae, Spirillaceae
  • Hyphomycetes (Fadenpilze)
  • Höhere Spaltpilze (Spaltalgen)

Chester (1897)[edit]

Chester, F. D. (1897). Classification of the Schizomycetes. Annual Report Delaware College Agricultural Experiment Station, 9, 62, [13].

Schizomycetes

  • Coccaceae
  • Bacteriaceae
  • Spirillaceae
  • Mycobacteriaceae
  • Chlamydobacteriaceae
  • Beggiatoaceae

Jennings (1899)[edit]

Jennings, A. Vaughn 1899. On a new genus of bacteria (Astrobacter). 'Proc. Royal Irish Academy, series 3, volume 5, 315, [14].

Schizomycetes

  • Paraschizae
  • Diaschizae

Migula in Engler & Prantl (1900)[edit]

Engler, Adolf and Prantl, Karl, ed. (1887–1915). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. I. Teil. 1. Abteilung a: Schizophyta: Schyzomycetes von W. Migula; Schizophyceae von O. Kirchner . Leipzig: W. Engelmann, [15].

Pflanzen

Chester (1901)[edit]

Chester, F. D. 1901. A Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. The Macmillan Company, New York, 47, [16].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Family Coccaceae
  • Family Bacteriaceae
  • Family Chlamydobacteriaceae
  • Family Beggiatoaceae
  • Family Mycobacteriaceae

Kendall (1902)[edit]

Kendall, A. 1902. A proposed classification and method of graphical tabulation of the characters of bacteria. Public Health, 28, 414, [17].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Family Coccaceae
  • Family Bacteriaceae
  • Family Spirilaceae
  • Family Chlamydobacteriaceae
  • Family Beggiatoaceae

Heim (1906)[edit]

Heim, Ludwig. 1906. Lehrbuch der Bakteriologie. 3rd ed., p. 303, [18].

  • Bakterien (Schizomyzeten)
    • Mikrokokken, Bazillen, Spirillen
  • Tricomyzeten
  • Blastomyzeten
  • Hyphomyzeten

Orla-Jensen (1909)[edit]

Orla-Jensen, S. 1909. Die Hauptlinien des nattirlichen Bakteriensystems. Cent. f. Bakt., Par. u. Inf., Abt. 2, 22: 305–346, [19]

Orla-Jensen, S. 1909. Vorschlag zu einer neuen bakteriologischen Nomenklatur. Cent. f. Bakt., Par. u. Inf., Abt. 2, 24: 477, [20].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Cephalotrichinae
  • Order Peritrichinae

Kolle & Hetch (1911)[edit]

Kolle, W. & Hetch, H. (1911). Die experimentelle Bakteriologie, 3rd ed., p. 17, [21].

Thallophyten

  • Pilze
    • Höhere Pilze
    • Spaltpilze oder Bakterien
      • Kokken
      • Bazilen
      • Spirillen
  • Algen, Flechten
    • Spaltalgen
      • Schwefelbakterien [sulfur bacteria]
      • Eisenbakterien [iron bacteria]
      • Streptothricheen

Schneider (1912)[edit]

Schneider, A. 1912. Pharmaceutical Bacteriology, [22].

Bacteria (Schizomycetes)

  • Coccaceae
  • Bacteriaceae
  • Spirillaceae
  • Spirochaetaceae
  • Mycobacteriaceae
  • Chlamydobacteriaceae
  • Beggiatoaceae

Benecke (1912)[edit]

Benecke, Wilhelm. 1912. Bau und Leben der Bakterien, [23].

Schizomycetes

  • Haplobacterinae
  • Desmobacterinae

Buchanan (1917-1918)[edit]

Buchanan, R. E. Studies on the Nomenclature and Classification of the Bacteria. J. Bact., 2, 155-164, 347-350, 603-617; 3, 27-62, 175-181, 301-306, 403-406, 461-474, 541-545. 1917, 1918, [24], [25]

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Winslow et al. (1917)[edit]

Winslow, C.-E. A., et al. 1917. The families and genera of the bacteria. Preliminary report. J. Bact., 2, 505-566, [26].

  • Class Schizomycetes
    • Order Myxobacteriales
    • Order Thiobacteriales
    • Order Chlamydobacteriales
    • Order Eubacteriales
  • Supplement: organisms intermediate between bacteria and protozoa
    • Spirochaetaceae

Engler & Gilg (1919)[edit]

Engler, A. & E. Gilg. (1919). Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 8th ed., Gebrüder Borntraeger Verlag, Berlin, 395 p, [27].

  • Schizophyta
    • Schizomycetes (Bacteria)
      • Eubacteria
      • Thiobacteria
    • Schizophyceae

Castellani & Chalmers (1919)[edit]

Castellani, A., and Chalmers, A. J (1919). Manual of Tropical Medicine. Baillière, Tindall and Cox, London, 1919. See pp. 924-966, [28], [29].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales

Winslow et al. (1920)[edit]

C.-E. A. Winslow, Jean Broadhurst, R. E. Buchanan, C. Krumwiede, L. A. Rogers, and G. H. Smith. The Families and Genera of the Bacteria. Final report of the Committee of the Society of American Bacteriologists on Characterization and Classification of Bacterial Types. Jour. Bact., 5, 191-229. 1920, [30].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Eubacteriales

Bergey et al. (1923)[edit]

Bergey, D.H., Harrison, F.C., Breed, R.S., Hammer, B.W. and Huntoon, F.M. (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 1st ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1923, pp. 442, [31].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxomycetales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Buchanan (1925)[edit]

Buchanan, R.E. 1925. General systematic bacteriology; history, nomenclature, groups of bacteria. Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, [32].

Class Schizomycetes [p. 103]

Bergey et al. (1925)[edit]

Bergey, D.H., Harrison, F.C., Breed, R.S., Hammer, B.W. and Huntoon, F.M. (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 2nd ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1925, pp. 462, [33].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Lehmann & Neumanm (1927)[edit]

Lehmann, K. B., and Neumann, R. O; assisted by Dold, H., Sussmann, O. and Haag, F. E. Bakteriologische Diagnostik. II Band. J. F. Lehmann, Munich; 7th ed., 1927. See pp. 192 ff., [34].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Schizomycetales
  • Order Actinomycetales

Bergey et al. (1930)[edit]

Bergey, D.H., Harrison, F.C., Breed, R.S., Hammer, B.W. and Huntoon, F.M. (eds). 1930. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 3rd ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore. pp. 1–589.

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Pribram (1933)[edit]

Pribram, Ernst. 1933. Klassifikation der Schizomyceten. Franz Deuticke, Leipzig and Vienna, 143 pp., [35].

Class Schizomycetes

Bergey et al. (1934)[edit]

Bergey, D.H., Breed, R.S., Hammer, B.W., Huntoon, F.M., Murray, E.G.D. and Harrison, F.C. (editors): Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 4th ed., The Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore, 1934.

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Bergey et al. (1939)[edit]

Bergey, D.H., Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Hitchens, A.P. (eds). 1939. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 5th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, [36].

Class Schizomycetes

  • Order Eubacteriales
  • Order Actinomycetales
  • Order Chlamydobacteriales
  • Order Caulobacteriales
  • Order Thiobacteriales
  • Order Myxobacteriales
  • Order Spirochaetales

Prévot (1940)[edit]

Prévot, A.-R. 1940. Manual de Classification et de Determination des Bactéries Anaérobies. Monographies de l'Institut Pasteur. Mason et Cie., Paris, [37].

Kingdom Schizomycetes

  • Class Eubacteriales
  • Class Actinomycetales
  • Class Chlamydobacteriales
  • Class Caulobacteriales
  • Class Thiobacteriales
  • Class Myxobacteriales
  • Class Spirochaetales

Stanier & van Niel (1941)[edit]

Stanier, R. Y., and van Niel, C. B. 1941. The main outlines of bacterial classification. J. Bact., 42, 437-466, [38].

  • Kingdom Monera
    • Division Myxophyta
    • Division Schizomycetaea
      • Class Eubacteriae
        • Order Rhodobacteriales
        • Order Eubacteriales
        • Order Actinomycetales
      • Class Myxobacteriae
        • Order Myxobacteriales
      • Class Spirochaetae
        • Order Spirochaetales
  • Appendix
    • Filamentous unsheathed organisms
      • Family Leptotrichaceae
      • Family Crenothricaceae
    • Unicellular organisms multiplying by transverse fission
      • Family Achromatiaae
    • Unicellular organisms multiplying by longitudinal fission, or budding, or both
      • Family Pasteuriaceae

Breed et al. (1948)[edit]

Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Hitchens, A.P. (eds). 1948. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 6th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, [39], [40].

Barkley (1949)[edit]

Barkley, Fred A. "Un esbozo de clasificación de los organismos." Revista de la Facultad Nacional de Agronomia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín. 10: 83–103, [41].

  • Mychota (Monera, Anucleobionta)
    • Schizophyta
      • Schizomycophyta (Myxothallophyta)
        • Vireae (Viriphyta)
          • Bacteriophagales (Zoophagi, Phytophagi)
          • Rickettsiales
        • Schyzomycetes (Eubacteriae)
          • Eubacteriales
          • Actinomycetales
          • Rhodobacteriales
          • Pasteuriales
        • Spirochaetae
          • Spirochaetales
      • Cyanophyta
        • Myxobacteriae
          • Myxobacteriales
        • Myxophyceae (Cyanophyceae, Schizophyceae, Phycochromaceae)
          • Beggiatoales
          • Coccogonales (Chroococcales)
          • Chaemosiphonales
          • Hormogoniales
  • Protista
  • Euplanta
  • Euanimalia

Krassilnikov (1949)[edit]

Krassilnikov, N. A. Guide to the identification of the bacteria and Actinomycetes. Academy of Sciences, U.S.S.R. Moscow, 1949, [42].

Protophyta

  • Schizophyceae
  • Schizomyceae
    • Actinomycetes
    • Eubacteriae
    • Myxobacteriae
    • Spirochaetae

Supplement

  • Chlamydozoa

Breed et al. (1957)[edit]

Breed, R.S., Murray, E.G.D. and Smith, N.R. (eds). 1957. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 7th ed. The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, [43].

Division Protophyta Sachs, 1874, emend. Krassilnikov, 1949

Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)[edit]

Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [44]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [45], [46].

Monde vivant

  • Protocaryotes (= Schizophytes)
    • Cyanoschizophytes (= Cyanophycées, Schyzophycées, Myxophycées, ou Algues bleues)
      • Chroococcales, Pleurocapsales, Stigonémales, Chamaesiphonales, Nostocales
    • Bactérioschizophytes (= Bactéries, ou Schizomycètes)
      • Hémibactéries, Eubactéries, Virobactéries
  • Eucaryotes

Häusler (1982)[edit]

Häusler, Jiří. (1982). Schizomycetes: Bakterien. In: Ettl, H, Gerloff, J. & Heynig, H. (eds), Süßwasserflora von Mitteleuropa, Bd. 20. G. Fischer: Stuttgart, [47].

Schizomycetes

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Buchanan, R. E. (1917). Studies in the Nomenclature and Classification of the Bacteria: II. The Primary Subdivisions of the Schizomycetes. J. Bacteriol. 2 (2): 155–64, [48].
  • Buchanan, R. E. (1925). General systematic bacteriology: history, nomenclature, groups of bacteria. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, [49].