Nauclea orientalis

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Nauclea orientalis

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Gentianales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Lamiids
Ordo: Gentianales

Familia: Rubiaceae
Subfamilia: Cinchonoideae
Tribus: Naucleeae
Genus: Nauclea
Species: Nauclea orientalis

Name[edit]

Nauclea orientalis (L.) L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 1: 243 (1762)

  • Type: Plate 338 in Hermann's Herb. (lectotype: BM), designated by Merrill (1915).
    • Note: once Osbeck's material in LINN was chosen as a lectotype, but it cannot serve as lectotype since it is Adina pilulifera (Lam.) Franch. ex Drake (see Ridsdale 1976: 186; Ridsdale 1978: 327).

Synonyms[edit]

(List may be incomplete)

  • Basionym
    • Cephalanthus orientalis L., Sp. Pl. 1: 95 (1753)
      • Note: among the citations Linnaeus listed in Species Plantarum, only Cephalanthus foliis oppositis sensu L., Fl. Zeyl.: 22 no. 53 (1748) is this species. Others based on Rheede's description as 'Katou Tsjaca' in Hortus Malabaricus 3: 29, t. 33 (1682) might be Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser (syn. Anthocephalus chinensis (Lam.) A.Rich. ex Walp.) or Ochreinauclea missionis (Wall. ex G.Don) Ridsdale; see Ridsdale (1976: 184–185), Nicolson, Suresh & Manilal (1988: 338).
  • Homotypic
    • Bancalus orientalis (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 277 (1891)
    • Sarcocephalus orientalis (L.) Merr., Philipp. J. Sci., C 3: 436 (1909); not accepted by Merrill (1915: 536) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
  • Heterotypic
    • Nauclea coadunata Roxb. ex Sm., Cycl. [A. Rees], (London ed.) 24: n. 6 (1813); not accepted by Miquel (1856: 133) [cited as Sarcocephalus cordatus], Ridsdale (1978: 327) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Nauclea cordata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal.: 14 (1814), nom. nud.] Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 2: 118 (1824); not accepted by Merrill (1909: 436) [cited as Sarcocephalus orientalis], Merrill (1915: 536; 1923: 516), Ridsdale (1978: 327) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: W. Roxburgh s.n. (cultivated at Hort. Calcutta from seed sent from Ceylon[Sri Lanka]).
        • Note: Ridsdale (1978: 327) suspects that this type is the same one as that of N. coadunata.
    • Nauclea undulata Roxb. [Hort. Bengal.: 14 (1814), nom. nud.] Fl. Ind. (Carey & Wallich ed.) 2: 117 (1824); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: Roxburgh s.n. (cultivated at Hort. Calcutta since 1789, provenance Moluccas).
    • Nauclea macrophylla Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 16: 1010 (October 1826–November 1827), nom. illeg., non Roxb., Fl. Ind. 1, 2: 120 (1824) [≡ Neolamarckia macrophylla (Roxb.) Bosser]; not accepted by Miquel (1869: 179) [cited as Sarcocephalus cordatus], Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Cadamba nocturna Buch.-Ham., Trans. Linn. Soc. London 15: 93 (1827)
      • Note: according to IPNI, this name is validated by description of 'Arbor Noctis, Bancalus femina & latifolia' by Rumphius, Herb. Amboin. 3: 82, t. 54.
      • Type locality: [Indonesia: Maluku:] 'in planitie in frigidis & humidis locis, in Gorama[​Gorong archipelago] vero ipsam in montibus inveni in densis silvis, ac porro in cunctis Occidentalibus & Orientalibus insulis, aliquando plures simul, ita ut densam constituant silvam.'
    • Nauclea glaberrima Bartl. ex DC., Prodr. 4: 344 (1830); not accepted by Merrill (1923: 516), Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Nauclea grandifolia DC., Prodr. 4: 345 (1830), nom. illeg., non Spreng., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 4(2, Cur. Post.): 81 (1827) [= Uncaria macrophylla Wall.]; not accepted by Miquel (1869: 179) [cited as Sarcocephalus cordatus], Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Note: new name for N. macrophylla Blume, nom. illeg.
    • Nauclea roxburghii G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3: 469 (1834); not accepted by Hooker (1880: 22) [cited as Sarcocephalus cordatus], Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: Wallich Cat. 6090 D sub nom. Nauclea stipulacea Roxb. (K001122991(JSTOR)).
        • Note: Hooker (1880) states that "[t]he true N. undulata, Roxb., is not Indian, it is Wallich's N. purpurea, 6090 D. (N. stipulacea, Herb. Roxb., not N. Roxburghii, G. Don Gen. Syst. iii. 467[sic!], which from the description is S. cordatus itself)."
    • Nauclea wallichiana R.Br. [in Wall., Numer. List: n. 6098] ex G.Don, Gen. Hist. 3: 466 (1834); not accepted by Hooker (1880: 22) [cited as Sarcocephalus cordatus], Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Cadamba nocturna Buch.-Ham. ex Hensch., Vita Rumphii: 156 (1833), nomen; not accepted by Merrill (1917: 47, 482) [cited as Nauclea undulata], Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Nauclea lutea Blanco, Fl. Filip.: 141 (1837); not accepted by Merrill (1918: 362; 1923: 516), Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: unknown fide Ridsdale (1978: 328).
    • Platanocarpum cordatum (Roxb.) Korth., Obs. Naucl. Ind.: 19 (1839)
    • Sarcocephalus cordatus (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 133 (1856)
    • Sarcocephalus glaberrimus (Bartl. ex DC.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 133 (1856); as Sarcocephalus? glaberrimus
    • Sarcocephalus undulatus (Roxb.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 133 (1856); as Sarcocephalus? undulatus
    • Sarcocephalus leichharditii F.Muell., Essay Pl. Burdekin: 12 (1860), pro parte; as S. Leichharditii; not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: not traced fide Ridsdale (1978: 328).
      • Type locality: [Australia. Queensland:] Percy and Sinclair Islands.
    • Sarcocephalus buruensis Miq., Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 4: 179 (1869)
      • Type: J.E. Teysmann s.n. (syntype: L 0000844; isosyntype: BO; possible type: U 0040957(JSTOR)) and Forsten s.n. (7 September 1840; syntype: U; isosyntype: BO; 'type' collected in 'Lithupang', Sulawesi: L {0000842, 0000843}).
      • Type locality: [Indonesia.]
        • Teysmann: [Maluku,] Boeroe[​Buru]: in distr. Kajeli[Kayeli].
        • Forsten: Celebes[Sulawesi], in sylvis ad Likupang.
    • Bancalus grandifolius (DC.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 277 (1891)
    • Sarcocephalus macrocephalus K.Schum., Nat. Pflanzenfam. [Engler & Prantl] 4(4): 59 (1891), nom. nud.; not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Sarcocephalus undulatus var. buruensis (Miq.) Havil., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 33: 29 (1897); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Sarcocephalus cordatus var. mollis Koord. & Valeton, Bijdr. Boomsoort. Java 8 (Meded. Lands Plantentuin 59): 15 (1902); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Sarcocephalus ovatus Elmer, Leafl. Philipp. Bot. 1: 33 (1906)
    • Nauclea minahassae Koord.-Schum., Syst. Verz. 3: 120 (1914), nom. nud.; not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Sarcocephalus annamensis Dubard & Eberh., Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 15: 493 (1909)
      • Type: P. Eberhardt s.n.
      • Type locality: [Vietnam.] 'Annam, d'autant plus qu'on s'avance davantage vers le Sud'.
    • Nauclea annamensis (Dubard & Eberh.) Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5(no. 15): 535 (1915); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
    • Nauclea elmeri Merr., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5(no. 15): 535 (1915); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Note: new name for Sarcocephalus ovatus; there exists a blocking name Nauclea ovata Merr., Philipp. J. Sci. 8: 42 (1913) [= Neonauclea glabra (Roxb.) Bakh.f. & Ridsdale].
    • Sarcocephalus coadunatus (Roxb. ex Sm.) Druce, Rep. Bot. Soc. Exch. Club. Brit. Isles 4(Suppl. 2): 644 (1917); as Sarcocephalis coadunatus
    • Sarcocephalus papagola Domin, Biblioth. Bot. 22(89): 614 [= 1168] (1929); not accepted by Ridsdale (1978: 328) [cited as Nauclea orientalis]
      • Type: Domin s.n. (syntypes; not seen by Ridsdale 1978).
      • Type locality: [Australia.] Queensland: Walsh. R. and Yarrabu.

Misapplied names[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Native distribution areas:
  • Continental: Asia-Tropical
    • Regional: Indian Subcontinent
      • Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
    • Regional: Indo-China
      • Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
    • Regional: Malesia
      • Borneo, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Philippines, Sulawesi, Sumetera
    • Regional: Papuasia
      • Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Is.
  • Continental: Australasia
    • Regional: Australia
      • Northern Territory, Queensland

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References[edit]

Primary references[edit]

Additional references[edit]

Links[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

Bikol Central: Mambog
Cebuano: Kabak (Merrill 1923: 517)
Ilokano: Bulala (Merrill 1923: 517)
Pangasinan: Bulala (Merrill 1923: 517)
Sunda: Gempol (Priyadi et al. 2010: 35)
ไทย: ก้านเหลือง
Tagalog: Bangkal (Merrill 1923: 515, 517)
Winaray: Bangkal (Merrill 1923: 517)
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