Cynodon dactylon

From Wikispecies
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Cynodon dactylon

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Poales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales

Familia: Poaceae
Subfamilia: Chloridoideae
Tribus: Cynodonteae
Subtribus: Eleusininae
Genus: Cynodon
Species: Cynodon dactylon

Name[edit]

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805).

Synonyms[edit]

  • Basionym
    • Panicum dactylon L., Sp. Pl. 1: 58 (1753).
  • Homotypic
    • Digitaria dactylon (L.) Scop., Fl. Carniol., ed. 2, 1: 52 (1771).
    • Dactilon officinale Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné 2: 69 (1787), nom. superfl.
    • Paspalum dactylon (L.) Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 176 (1791).
    • Digitaria littoralis Salisb., Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 19 (1796), nom. superfl.
    • Phleum dactylon (L.) Georgi, Beschr. Nation. Russ. Reich 4: 681 (1800).
    • Fibichia umbellata Koeler, Descr. Gramin.: 308 (1802), nom. superfl.
    • Milium dactylon (L.) Moench, Suppl. Meth.: 67 (1802).
    • Cynosurus dactylon (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805).
    • Paspalum ambiguum DC. in J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 3: 16 (1805), nom. superfl.
    • Digitaria stolonifera Schrad., Fl. Germ.: 165 (1806), nom. superfl.
    • Panicum ambiguum Le Turq., Fl. Rouen: 28 (1816), nom. superfl.
    • Cynodon sarmentosus Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 100 (1822) [1821 publ. 1822], nom. superfl.
    • Chloris cynodon Trin., Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl.: 229 (1824), nom. superfl.
    • Cynodon repens Dulac, Fl. Hautes-Pyrénées: 76 (1867), nom. superfl.
    • Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 764 (1891).
    • Fibichia dactylon (L.) Beck, Glasn. Zemaljsk. Muz. Bosni Hercegovini 15: 26 (1903).
  • Heterotypic
    • Panicum lineare L., Sp. Pl. ed. 2, 1: 85 (1762).
    • Agrostis linearis Retz., Observ. Bot. 4: 19 (1786).
    • Cynosurus uniflorus Walter, Fl. Carol.: 82 (1788).
    • Paspalum umbellatum Lam., Tabl. Encycl. 1: 177 (1791).
    • Agrostis stellata Willd., Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 1: 376 (1797).
    • Digitaria linearis (L.) Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 85 (1805).
    • Cynodon linearis (Retz.) Willd., Enum. Pl.: 90 (1809).
    • Cynodon stellatus (Willd.) Willd., Enum. Pl.: 90 (1809).
    • Vilfa linearis (Retz.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 16 (1812).
    • Vilfa stellata (Willd.) P.Beauv., Ess. Agrostogr.: 16 (1812).
    • Cynodon maritimus Kunth in F.W.H.von Humboldt, A.J.A.Bonpland & C.S.Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 170 (1816).
    • Cynodon tenuis Trin., Neue Entdeck. Pflanzenk. 2: 63 (1821).
    • Chloris maritima Trin., Gram. Unifl. Sesquifl.: 236 (1824).
    • Digitaria maritima (Kunth) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 272 (1824).
    • Digitaria linearis (Retz.) Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 271 (1825).
    • Cynodon erectus J.Presl in C.B.Presl, Reliq. Haenk. 1: 290 (1829).
    • Cynodon pascuus Nees in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. Enum. Pl. 2: 425 (1829).
    • Agrostis bermudiana Tussac ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1: 259 (1833), pro syn.
    • Agrostis filiformis J.Koenig ex Kunth, Enum. Pl. 1: 261 (1833), pro syn.
    • Cynodon occidentalis Willd. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 463 (1840), pro syn.
    • Cynodon portoricensis Willd. ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 1: 463 (1840), pro syn.
    • Panicum glumipatulum Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 41 (1853).
    • Chloris paytensis Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 207 (1854).
    • Cynodon glabratus Steud., Syn. Pl. Glumac. 1: 212 (1854).
    • Digitaria glumipatula (Steud.) Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 3: 439 (1857).
    • Dactylus officinalis Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 810 (1864), pro syn.
    • Cynodon dactylon var. villosus Regel, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 41(II): 305 (1869).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. pulchellus Benth., Fl. Austral. 7: 609 (1878).
    • Fibichia umbellata var. biflora (Merino) Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 1: 76 (1890).
    • Fibichia umbellata f. glabrescens Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 1: 76 (1890).
    • Fibichia umbellata f. major Beck, Fl. Nieder-Österreich 1: 76 (1890).
    • Syntherisma linearis (L.) Nash, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 22: 420 (1895).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. elegans Rendle in W.P.H iern, Cat. Afr. Pl. 2: 221 (1899).
    • Cynodon dactylon septentrionalis Asch. & Graebn., Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2(1): 85 (1899).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. biflorus Merino, Fl. Galicia 3: 310 (1909).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. maritimus (Kunth) Hack., Ark. Bot. 8(8): 40 (1909).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. glabratus (Steud.) Chiov., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n.s., 26: 82 (1919).
    • Capriola dactylon var. maritima (Kunth) Hitchc., Bull. U.S.D.A. 772: 179 (1920).
    • Cynodon dactylon subvar. hirsutissimus Litard. & Maire, Mém. Soc. Sci. Nat. Maroc 4: 25 (1924).
    • Cynodon polevansii Stent, Bothalia 2: 278 (1927).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. villosus Grossh., Fl. Kavkaza 1: 91 (1928), nom. illeg.
    • Cynodon dactylon f. villosus (Regel) Roshev. in V.L.Komarov (ed.), Fl. URSS 2: 285 (1934).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. hirsutissimus (Litard. & Maire) Maire, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afrique N. 30: 368 (1939).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. nipponicus Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 10: 264 (1941).
    • Cynodon parviglumis Ohwi, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 55: 538 (1941).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. densus Hurcombe, J. S. African Bot. 13: 107 (1947).
    • Cynodon dactylon subsp. glabratus (Steud.) A.Chev., Rev. Int. Bot. Appl. Agric. Trop. 27: 282 (1947).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. sarmentosus Parodi, Revista Argent. Agron. 23: 185 (1956).
    • Cynodon barberi f. longifolia Join, Indian Forester 92: 699 (1966).
    • Cynodon affinis Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 223 (1969).
    • Cynodon aristiglumis Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 236 (1969).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. aridus J.R.Harlan & de Wet, Crop Sci.(Madison) 9: 774 (1969).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. longiglumis Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 210 (1969).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. pilosus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 210 (1969).
    • Cynodon decipiens Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 262 (1969).
    • Cynodon distichloides Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 254 (1969).
    • Cynodon grandispiculus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 258 (1969), pro syn.
    • Cynodon hirsutissimus (Litard. & Maire) Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 220 (1969).
    • Cynodon laeviglumis Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 217 (1969).
    • Cynodon maritimus var. breviglumis Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 234 (1969).
    • Cynodon maritimus var. grandispiculus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 234 (1969).
    • Cynodon mucronatus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Kurtziana 5: 239 (1969).
    • Cynodon dactylon f. glabrescens (Beck) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17: 123 (1971 publ. 1972), not validly publ.
    • Cynodon dactylon f. major (Beck) Soó, Acta Bot. Acad. Sci. Hung. 17: 123 (1971 publ. 1972).
    • Cynodon aristulatus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Darwiniana 17: 514 (1972).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. septentrionalis (Asch. & Graebn.) Ravarut, Fl. Republ. Socialist. România 12: 139 (1972).
    • Cynodon nitidus Caro & E.A.Sánchez, Darwiniana 17: 510 (1972).
    • Cynodon dactylon f. viviparus Beetle, Phytologia 48: 189 (1981).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. parviglumis (Ohwi) Fosberg & Sachet, Micronesica 18: 45 (1982 publ. 1984).
    • Cynodon iraquensis Caro, Dominguezia 6: 5 (1983).
    • Cynodon maritimus var. vaginiflorus Caro, Dominguezia 6: 20 (1983).
    • Cynodon pedicellatus Caro, Dominguezia 6: 9 (1983).
    • Cynodon scabrifolius Caro, Dominguezia 6: 13 (1983).
    • Cynodon umbellatus (Lam.) Caro, Dominguezia 6: 16 (1983).
    • Cynodon dactylon var. affinis (Caro & E.A.Sánchez) Romero Zarco, Lagascalia 14: 171 (1986).
    • Cynodon dactylon subsp. nipponicus (Ohwi) T.Koyama, Grass. Japan: 498 (1987).

Distribution[edit]

Native distribution areas:
  • Continental: Europe
    • Regional: Northern Europe
      • Great Britain
    • Regional: Middle Europe
      • Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Switzerland.
    • Regional: Southwestern Europe
      • Baleares, Corse, France, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
    • Regional: Southeastern Europe
      • Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia.
    • Regional: Eastern Europe
      • Krym, Central European Russia, South European Russia, Ukraine.
  • Continental: Africa
    • Regional: Northern Africa
      • Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara.
    • Regional: Macaronesia
      • Azores, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira.
    • Regional: West Tropical Africa
      • Benin, Burkina, Gambia, The, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.
    • Regional: West-Central Tropical Africa
      • Burundi, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gulf of Guinea Islands, Rwanda, Zaïre.
    • Regional: Northeast Tropical Africa
      • Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan.
    • Regional: East Tropical Africa
      • Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda.
    • Regional: South Tropical Africa
      • Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
    • Regional: Southern Africa
      • Botswana, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Lesotho, Namibia, KwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Swaziland, Northern Provinces.
    • Regional: Middle Atlantic Ocean
      • Ascension, St. Helena.
    • Regional: Western Indian Ocean
      • Aldabra, Chagos Archipelago, Mauritius, Mozambique Channel Islands, Madagascar, Réunion, Rodrigues, Seychelles.
  • Continental: Asia-Temperate
    • Regional: Middle Asia
      • Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
    • Regional: Caucasus
      • North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
    • Regional: Western Asia
      • Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon-Syria, Palestine, Sinai, Turkey.
    • Regional: Arabian Peninsula
      • Gulf States, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.
    • Regional: China
      • China South-Central, Hainan, China North-Central, China Southeast.
    • Regional: Eastern Asia
      • Japan, Korea, Kazan-retto, Nansei-shoto, Ogasawara-shoto, Taiwan.
  • Continental: Asia-Tropical
    • Regional: Indian Subcontinent
      • Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Laccadive Islands, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, West Himalaya.
    • Regional: Indo-China
      • Andaman Islands, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Nicobar Islands, South China Sea, Thailand, Vietnam.
    • Regional: Malesia
      • Borneo, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Islands, Malaya, Maluku, Philippines, Sumatera, Christmas Isle.
    • Regional: Papuasia
      • Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea, Solomon Islands.
  • Continental: Australasia
    • Regional: Australia
      • Norfolk Islands, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia.
    • Regional: New Zealand
      • Kermadec Islands, New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
  • Continental: Pacific
    • Regional: Southwestern Pacific
      • Fiji, Gilbert Islands, Howland-Baker Islands, Nauru, Niue, New Caledonia, Phoenix Islands, Samoa, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Wallis-Futuna Islands.
    • Regional: South-Central Pacific
      • Cook Islands, Easter Islands, Line Islands, Marquesas, Pitcairn Islands, Society Islands, Tuamotu, Tubuai Islands.
    • Regional: Northwestern Pacific
      • Caroline Islands, Marianas, Marshall Islands, Wake Island.
    • Regional: North-Central Pacific
      • Hawaii.
  • Continental: Northern America
    • Regional: Western Canada
      • British Columbia.
    • Regional: Eastern Canada
      • Newfoundland.
    • Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
      • Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington.
    • Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
      • Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma.
    • Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
      • Connecticut, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia,
    • Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
      • Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
    • Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
      • New Mexico, Texas.
    • Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
      • Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.
    • Regional: Mexico
      • Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mexican Pacific Islands.
  • Continental: Southern America
    • Regional: Central America
      • Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.
    • Regional: Caribbean
      • Aruba, Bahamas, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Islands, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Turks-Caicos Islands, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Islands.
    • Regional: Northern South America
      • French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela.
    • Regional: Western South America
      • Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Galápagos, Peru.
    • Regional: Brazil
      • Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central.
    • Regional: Southern South America
      • Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Chile Central, Chile North, Desventurados Islands, Paraguay, Uruguay.
  • Continental: Antarctic
    • Regional: Subantarctic Islands
      • Amsterdam-St. Paul Islands, Tristan da Cunha.
  • Note: Grey script indicates introduced occurrences.

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDWG – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References[edit]

Primary references[edit]

Links[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

Deutsch: Hundszahngras
English: Bermuda Grass
suomi: Varvasheinä, sormiheinä
français: Chiendent pied de poule
հայերեն: Արվանտակ, շնատամ, սիլ
italiano: Gramigna
polski: Cynodon palczasty
русский: Свинорой пальчатый
தமிழ்: அறுகு
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Cynodon dactylon on Wikimedia Commons.