Livendula violacea

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Echenais mollis (syn. Livendula violacea) from original description.


Taxonavigation: Papilionoidea 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Cladus: Pancrustacea
Cladus: Allotriocarida
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Holometabola
Superordo: Panorpida
Cladus: Amphiesmenoptera
Ordo: Lepidoptera
Subordo: Glossata
Cladus: Coelolepida
Cladus: Myoglossata
Cladus: Neolepidoptera
Infraordo: Heteroneura
Cladus: Eulepidoptera
Cladus: Ditrysia
Cladus: Apoditrysia
Cladus: Obtectomera
Superfamilia: Papilionoidea

Familia: Riodinidae
Subfamilia: Riodininae
Tribus: Nymphidiini
SubTribus: Pandemina
Genus: Livendula
Subspecies: Livendula violacea


Livendula violacea (Butler, 1867).

Type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Tefé.

Syntype: BMNH. male ♂ and female ♀. images.


  • Lemonias violacea Butler, 1867: (original combination)
  • Echenais alector violacea [form] (Butler); Stichel, 1910: 31.
  • =Adelotypa alector (Butler); Bridges, 1994: VIII.487.
  • Adelotypa violacea (Butler); Lamas, 2004: 167.
  • Livendula violacea (Butler); Hall, 2007, 38.
  • Echenais alector asemna Stichel, 1910: 31 (synonymized by Hall, 2018: 511). [see also as Adelotypa asemna (Stichel, 1910) in Lamas, 2004 and Livendula asemna (Stichel, 1910) in Seraphim et al., 2017: 9, 15].
    • Type locality: Bolivia, Bueyes.
      • Lectotype: ZMHU. male ♂.
  • Echenais alector alector f. glaucobrithis Stichel, 1910: 31. An infrasubspecific name under Article 45.5 of the ICZN.
    • Type locality: Peru, Yurimagus and Rio Shanusi, Pebas.
      • Syntypes: ZMHU. 5 males ♂♂.
  • Echenais mollis Butler, 1877: 133 pl.3 fig.4; Mengel, 1905: 117 (synonymized under Livendula violacea by Hall, 2018: 511).
    • Type locality: Brazil, Fonteboa.
      • Syntypes: BMNH. males ♂♂.
  • Echenais alector mollis Butler; Stichel, 1911: 336.
  • Adelotypa alector mollis (Butler); Bridges, 1994: 307.
  • Adelotypa mollis (Butler); Lamas, 2004: 167.


Primary references[edit]

Additional references[edit]