Wikiespécies:Glossário

From Wikispecies
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This page is a translated version of the page Wikispecies:Glossary and the translation is 44% complete.
Outdated translations are marked like this.

Termos e abreviações

Directory A·B·C·D·E·F·G·H·I·J·K·L·M·N·O·P·Q·R·S·T·U·V·W·X·Y·Z

!

  • !: Indica que um espécime foi visto pelo autor.
  • : Indica que um espécime foi destruído.

A

  • affinis (frequentemente abreviado como aff. ou ocasionalmente, affin.) indica que o material ou evidência disponível sugere que o táxon proposto está relacionado com - tem uma "afinidade" com - mas não é idêntico ao táxon com o nome binomial que vem depois. A palavra latina affinis pode ser traduzida como "intimamente relacionado a" ou "semelhante a".
  • agg. Aggregate species. A grouping of closely-related species that are treated like a single species for practical purposes.
  • auct.; auctt. (Auctorum) Um nome usado no sentido de vários autores subsequentes e não em seu (diferente) sentido, conforme estabelecido pelo autor original. É frequentemente usado em conjunto com nec ou non para indicar um nome mal aplicado.
  • autonym Um nome infragenérico ou infraespecífico gerado automaticamente.

B

  • basionym Em botânica, o primeiro nome legítimo ("nome de base") no qual um nome em uma nova classificação ou uma nova combinação é baseado, fornecendo o epíteto final, nome ou radical da nova combinação, ou nome na nova classificação. Equivalente a protônimo em zoologia e basônimo em bacteriologia.
  • basonym Em bacteriologia, o primeiro nome usado para um táxon. Equivalente a protônimo em zoologia e basiônimo em botânica.
  • bis Nas abreviações de autores, "bis" denota o segundo filho de um autor. Compare "f." e "filius". Por exemplo Schult.f. (Julius Hermann Schultes, 1804-1840) e JHSchult.bis (Julius Hermann Schultes, 1820-1887),

o primeiro e o segundo filhos de Josef August Schultes (1773-1831, Schult.)

C

  • Candidatus Na nomenclatura bacteriana, Candidatus é um componente do nome taxonômico de uma bactéria que não pode ser mantida em uma coleção de cultura bacteriológica. É um status taxonômico provisório para organismos ainda a serem cultivados. De acordo com o "Comitê Ad Hoc para a reavaliação da definição de espécie em bacteriologia",

Os microbiologistas são encorajados a usar o conceito de Candidatus para organismos bem caracterizados, mas ainda não cultivados. Os nomes incluídos nesta categoria são geralmente escritos como: Candidato (em itálico), o (s) nome (s) subsequente (s) em tipo romano (com uma inicial maiúscula para o nome do gênero) e o nome completo entre aspas. Por exemplo, "Candidatus Carsonella", e "Candidatus Carsonella ruddii".

  • cf. (confer). Latim para "comparar", marcando uma identificação incerta ou referindo-se a uma comparação entre fontes com opiniões taxonômicas diferentes.
  • chresonym É o uso citado de um nome de táxon, geralmente um nome de espécie, dentro de uma publicação. Não há suposições com respeito à adequação ou precisão nas designações cf. sinônimo.
  • chresonymy É um resumo das ocorrências publicadas de qualquer nome científico ou conjunto de nomes para um táxon. Pode conter ortocresônimos e/ou heterocresônimos.
  • comb. ined. (combinatio inedita). Uma combinação que parece não ter sido publicada de forma válida ou cuja publicação é incerta de acordo com um ou mais artigos do ICBN. Veja também nom. ined.
  • comb. inval. (combinatio invalida). Uma combinação não publicada de forma válida de acordo com o ICBN.
  • comb. illeg. (combinatio illegitima). Um nome publicado de forma válida que não está de acordo com uma ou mais regras do ICBN.
  • comb. nov. (combinatio nova). Um nome recém-publicado que é introduzido com base em um nome pré-existente, geralmente o epíteto específico é usado com outro nome de gênero.
  • comb. superfl. (combinatio superflua). Combinação supérflua, criando um homônimo ilegítimo.
  • cum descr. (cum descriptione). Com descrição.
  • cv. (cultivated variety). Added before the name of a cultivar in botany, e.g. Ziziphus jujuba cv. 'Spinasa'

E

  • emend. (emendavit) The diagnostic characters or the circumscription of a taxon has been altered ("emended").
  • et al. or & al. (Grammatical genders: et alii [masculine], et aliae [feminine] or et alia [neuter]). Latin for: and others, used to indicate other authors of a published work. Should always be italicized when using as an abbreviation.
  • ex Used to credit the coiner of a name, when said name was never, or invalidly published. Usage differs between botany and zoology:
    • In botany, the "correct" author goes last, same as with combination authors.
    • In zoology, the "correct" author goes first, as it is closest to the name.
  • excl. var. (exclusis varietatibus). This taxonomic concept excludes varieties which other authors have subsequently included.

F

  • fide "on the authority of", or with reference to publication, to a cited published statement
  • filius (often abbreviated f.) In author abbreviations "f." denotes the first son of an author. For example L.f. (Carolus Linnaeus the Younger), the son of L. (Carolus Linnaeus). Compare "bis".
  • floruit (often abbreviated fl. or occasionally, flor.) Latin meaning "he/she flourished", and denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone "flourished", e.g. a period in life when an author of taxa was the most active.

G

  • gen. nov. (genus novum). Um gênero que foi publicado de forma válida e recente.

H

  • hemihomonyms O mesmo nome usado para táxons de diferentes jurisdições de nomenclatura.
  • heterochresonym A chresonym that is applied incorrectly or inappropriately for a given taxon, possibly by misidentification. In botany this term can be more or less equivalent to a later heterotypic homonym. Examples at Wikipedia.
  • heterotypic synonym (taxonomic synonym). A name referring to the same taxon based on a type different from that of another name; often indicated by the symbol “=”; termed a “subjective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
  • holotype (holotypus) A single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
  • homonym The same name based on different types.
  • homotypic synonym (nomenclatural synonym). A name based on the same type as that of another name; often indicated by the symbol “≡”; termed an “objective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
  • Hort. (Hortulanorum). Used to indicate a name that saw significant use in the horticultural literature (usually of the 19th century and earlier), but was never properly published.

I

  • ICBN International Code of Botanical Nomenclature now known as the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) maintained by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy.
  • ICZN Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica.
  • in clavi. (in clavis, in clavem). In key or glossary.
  • in litt. (in litteris). Em correspondência.
  • in obs. (in observatione). Em observação.
  • in sched. (in schedis). On a herbarium sheet.
  • incertae sedis Of uncertain placement. A term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.
  • ined. (ineditus). Nome provisório não publicado e não validado.
  • isonym The same name based on the same type, published independently at different times.
  • isotype In plant taxonomy a plant specimen that is a duplicate of or very similar to the type specimen and can be used as a reference specimen. They are collected at the same time and from the same plant, or localised population of plants, as the holotype. These duplicate specimens are often separated and deposited in several institutions.

J

  • juv. (juvenilis). Individual organism that has not yet reached its adult form, sexual maturity, or size.

L

  • lectotype A specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type, in conformity with Art. 9.9 and 9.10 ICN, if no holotype was indicated at the time of publication, or if it is missing, or if it is found to belong to more than one taxon (see also Art. 9.13 ICN).
  • loc. cit. (loco citato). Do latim: 'no lugar mencionado'

N

  • nec (or non) Aviso, um homônimo pode ser mal interpretado.
  • neotype A specimen or illustration later selected to serve as the single type specimen when an original holotype has been lost or destroyed, or where the original author never cited a specimen (Art. 75 ICZN and Art. 9.6, 9.15 ICN).
  • nom. alt. (nomen alternativum). Nome de família considerado validamente publicado devido ao uso prolongado (Art. 18 ICN).
  • nom. ambig. (nomen ambiguum). Um nome ambíguo, nome comumente usado por engano para mais de um táxon. Frequentemente impossível de tipificar.
  • nom. cons. (nomen conservandum)
    1. A name of a family, genus or species [or infraspecies] ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though it may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1-14.7 ICN).
    2. A name for which its type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.1, 14.9-14.11 ICN).
  • nom. cons. prop. (nomen conservandum propositum). Proposed conserved name.
  • nom. dub. (nomen dubium, plural: nomina dubia). A dubious name whose application is difficult or impossible to determine.
  • nom. et orth. cons. (nomen et orthographia conservanda). Both name and orthographic variant conserved (Art. 14.1, 14.9-14.11 ICN).
  • nom. et typ. cons. (nomen et typus conservandum). Both name and type of a family, genus or species [or infraspecies] ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though they may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1-14.7 ICN).
  • nom. illeg. (nomen illegitimum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules (Art. 6.4 ICN), principally those on superfluity (Art. 52 ICN) and homonymy (Art. 53 and 54 ICN).
  • nom. illeg. hom. (nomen illegitimum homonymum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with the one or more of the rules on homonymy (Art. 53 and 54 ICN). A later or junior homonym.
  • nom. illeg. superfl. (nomen illegitimum superfluum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with the rule of superfluity (Art. 52 ICN). See also nom. superfl.
  • nom. inadmiss. (nomen inadmissibile). Illegitime renaming of the type.
  • nom. ined. (nomen ineditum). A name that does not appear to have been properly published in accordance with conditions under Art. 29-50 ICN.
  • nom. inval. (nomen invalidum). A name not validly published according to Art. 29-45 ICN or H.9 ICN (Art. 6.2 ICN).
  • nom. nov. (nomen novum, replacement name, avowed substitute). A nomen novum (new name) is a replacement name based on a legitimate or illegitimate, previously published name. The previous name is its replaced synonym and, when legitimate, does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name. New names are created in order to avoid homonymy or creation of tautonyms. (Art. 6.11 ICN.)
  • nom. nud. (nomen nudum). A "naked name". A name of a new taxon published without a description or diagnosis, nor with reference to a description or diagnosis (Art. 50B.1 ICN).
  • nom. praeocc. (nomen praeoccupatum). Name preoccupied, i.e., already published for another taxon.
  • nom. prov. ou nom. provis. (nomen provisorium).Nome provisório.
  • nom. rej. (nomen rejiciendum). A name rejected in favour of a name conserved under Art. 14 ICN or a name ruled as rejected under Art. 56 ICN (App. II, III, IV, and V).
  • nom. rej. prop. (nomen rejiciendum propositum).Proposed rejected name.
  • nom. subnud. (nomen subnudum).Published with a dubious diagnosis or description, thus leaving it in doubt whether or not it is a name.
  • nom. superfl. (nomen superfluum). Superfluous name; usually used for illegitimate names where the correct name or basionym is mentioned at the time of publication.
  • nom. utique rej. prop. (nomen utique rejiciendum propositum). Name proposed for rejection to the ICBN (Art. 56.1), because otherwise it would cause a disadvantageous nomenclatural change.
  • non design. (non designatus). Não designado.
  • non vidi (n. v.). Not seen. Usually refers to a protologue or description of a taxon that is difficult to locate and hence verify. In the literature refers to a specimen, usually a type, that the author couldn't physically examine.

O

  • opus utiq. oppr./opera utiq. oppr. (Opus utique oppressum/Opera utique oppressa). Works, ruled as suppressed. In these names, in specified ranks, are not validly published. "Opus" is singular, "opera" is plural.
  • orth. cons. (orthographia conservanda). Conserved orthographic variant.
  • orth. emend. (orthographia emendata). Ortografia corrigida de acordo com os requisitos do ICBN.
  • orth. err. Erro ortográfico corrigível de acordo com os requisitos do ICBN.
  • orth. var. Variante ortográfica.
  • orthochresonym A chresonym appropriately used to designate a taxon according to the relevant Acts, but the name is not accepted, or has become superfluous. Examples at Wikipedia.
  • ordo. nov. (ordo novus). Novo pedido publicado ou proposto.

P

  • parahomonyms Under ICN, names that are similar enough that they are likely to be confused, are also considered to be homonymous (Art. 53.3). For the zoological code has a set of spelling variations (Art. 58) that are considered to be identical.
  • paralectotype In botany a specimen prior to lectotypification included among the syntypes, other than the chosen lectotype and isolectotypes. Duplicates are isoparalectotype(s). Not covered by ICN.
  • paratype In both zoology and botany it is a specimen of an organism that helps define what the scientific name of a taxon actually represents. However, it is not the holotype and in botany it is also neither an isotype nor a syntype.
  • p.p. or pro parte "In part", regarding synonyms caused by subdivided taxa and circumscriptional changes.
  • preocc. ([nomen] praeoccupatum). Preoccupied, i.e. name already published for another taxon.
  • pro gen. (pro genus). Como gênero.
  • pro hybr. or pro hybrid. (pro hybrido). Como híbrido.
  • pro sp. (pro specie). Como espécie.
  • pro syn. (pro synonymo). Como sinônimo.
  • protologue first valid description: formal description of a newly discovered taxon, usually in the form of a scientific paper
  • protonym In zoology, the first name used for a taxon. Equivalent to basionym in botany, and basonym in bacteriology.

Q

  • quoad typum With respect or pertaining to the type of a taxon. Commonly found in association with p.p. or pro parte, as p.p. quoad typum or p.p. (quoad typum).

R

  • rank As seguintes terminações indicam a classificação na nomenclatura botânica:
    • -obiotina = sub-reino
    • -ophytanae = superdivisão ou superfilo
    • -ophyta = divisão ou filo
    • -ophytina = subdivisão
    • -opsida = classe
    • -idea = subclasse
    • -anae = superordo
    • -ales = ordo
    • -ineae = subordo
    • -ariae = superfamilia
    • -aceae = família
    • -indae = supersubfamilia
    • -oideae = subfamília
    • -odae = supertribus
    • -eae = tribus
    • -odinae = supersubtribus
    • -inae = subtribus
  • replaced synonym The previously published, legitimate or illegitimate name on which a replacement name (nomen novum) is based. When legitimate, the replaced synonym does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name.

S

  • sanctioned name In botany, a name defined under the Code (Art. F.3) as used in certain works by Persoon and Fries. These names are treated as though conserved against earlier homonyms and synonyms, but can still be conserved, rejected or protected in their own right. The earlier names are also not considered illegitimate.
  • sensu auct. (sensu auctorum). As used by the cited author, but specifically excluding the original meaning.
  • serotype or serovar A distinct infraspecific variation within a species of bacteria or virus.
  • s.c. (sine collector). Sem um nome de colecionador atribuído.
  • s.d. (sine data). Sem data.
  • s.l..
    • sensu lato Em sentido amplo.
    • sine loco Sem um local (ou seja, onde a amostra foi coletada).
  • s.n. (sine numero).Sem um número atribuído ao coletor.
  • s.s., s.str. (sensu stricto). No sentido estrito.
  • sine dign. defin. (sine dignitate definita). Táxons não classificados.
  • sine descr. (sine descriptione). Sem descrição na nomenclatura.
  • species inquirenda Espécies de identidade duvidosa que requerem investigação adicional.
  • sphalm. (sphalmate). By mistake, mistakenly.
  • supra [see "vide supra"]
  • syn. or synonym A scientific name that applies to a taxon that now goes by a different scientific name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently. They may also arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. A synonym is always the synonym of a different scientific name and cannot exist in isolation. One taxon may have several synonyms, but can only have one valid scientific name. An example of this is the domestic dog. It was originally described as Canis aegyptius. Some years later it was redescribed as Canis minor (and several other names), and today it is named Canis lupus familiaris. Hence both Canis aegyptius and Canis minor are synonyms of the now valid scientific name Canis lupus familiaris – but they all apply to the same taxon.
  • Syntype In botany, any specimen cited in the protologue when there is no holotype, or any one of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as types (Art. 9.5 ICN). In zoology, each specimen of a type series (q.v.) from which neither a holotype nor a lectotype has been designated [Arts. 72.1.2, 73.2, 74 ICZN]. The syntypes collectively constitute the name-bearing type.

T

  • t., tab., tabula Plate, used in bibliography to refer to a numbered illustration. That illustration may be used as a division (some work have unnumbered pages matched to numbered plates) or constitute in and of itself valid publication of a name (under ICZN article 12.2.7 or ICNafp article 38.7).
  • tautonym A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, as Pica pica. It is permissible in zoological nomenclature but prohibited in botanical taxonomy.
  • tax. nov. (taxon novum). Um novo táxon.
  • t.b.c. Para ser confirmado.
  • topotype A specimen from the type locality.
  • typ. cons. (typus conservandus). With a conserved type.
  • typus or type Um espécime particular (ou em casos raros, um grupo de espécimes) ao qual o nome científico é formalmente anexado. O tipo é um exemplo que serve para ancorar um nome científico específico em um determinado táxon.
  • Type genus genus from which the name of a family or subfamily is formed. The type genus is not necessarily the most representative, but is usually the earliest described, largest or best known. In botany type genus has no formal standing, but this is not the case in zoology.
  • Type locality The geographical location where a type specimen was originally found.
  • Type species Cada gênero deve ter uma espécie-tipo designada com a qual está permanentemente associada. Na botânica, as espécies do tipo não têm uma posição formal, mas este não é o caso na zoologia.

U

  • Unplaced nameNames that currently cannot be accepted, nor can they be put into a synonymy. This may be because the name is not validly published, or it is a later homonym and therefore illegitimate or because it is a species whose genus name is not accepted. See also comb. ined. and nom. ined.

V

  • vide "ver" ou "referir-se a", usado em citações acadêmicas.
    • vide infra (v. i.) "veja abaixo", usado em trabalhos acadêmicos.
    • vide supra (v. s.) "see above", used in scholarly works. Sometimes truncated to supra.
  • videlicet (viz) contraction of "videre licet" ("one may see", "it is permitted to see") and sometimes used instead of vide infra.

Referências