Suborders of Hemiptera
Historically, the Hemiptera were divided into two suborders, Heteroptera and Homoptera. Heteroptera is uncontroversially monophyletic, but it is now agreed that Homoptera is paraphyletic, and that Sternorrhyncha is sister to the remaining Hemiptera (von Dohlen & Moran, 1995). The monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha is disputed. At any rate, Auchenorrhyncha consists of two monophyletic subgroups, traditionally called Cicadomorpha and Fulgoromorpha, and each given the rank of infraorder. One line of evidence (mainly molecular) suggests that Fulgoromorpha is the sister group of Heteroptera (plus Coleorrhyncha), leading to the splitting of Auchenorrhyncha into two suborders, Clypeorrhyncha (for Cicadomorpha), and Archaeorrhyncha (for Fulgoromorpha). However, other authors cite 'compelling morphological evidence' for the monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha (e.g., Grimaldi & Engel, 2005). Since the Clypeorrhyncha/Archaeorrhyncha classification is actually consistent with both sides of the debate, I prefer to adopt it herein and remain neutral on the monophyly or otherwise of Auchenorrhyncha. Similarly, it is now agreed that Coleorrhyncha is sister to Heteroptera, which leads some authors to recognise a suborder Prosorrhyncha, but since this causes complications in reclassifying the Heteroptera, and the two groups are very distinct morphologically, it is more convenient to retain them as separate suborders. Hence, there are two competing phylogenetic hypotheses for hemipteran suborders. The first is
which in the 5 suborder system adopted herein can be written as
The second, based mainly on molecular evidence, is
- Campbell, B.C.; Steffen-Campbell, J.D.; Sorensen, J.T.; Gill, R.J. 1995: Paraphyly of Homoptera and Auchenorrhyncha inferred from 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences. Systematic entomology, 20: 175-194.
- Dohlen, C.D. von; Moran, N.A. 1995: Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. Journal of molecular evolution, 41: 211-223.
- Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press.
- Sorensen, J.T.; Campbell, B.C.; Gill, R.J.; Steffen-Campbell, J.D. 1995: Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications with pre-Heteropteroidea Hemiptera (s.l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific entomologist, 71(1): 31-60.
- Bourgoin, T.; Campbell, B.C. 2002: Inferring a phylogeny for Hemiptera: Falling into the "Autapomorphic Trap". Denisia, 4: 67-82.
- Yoshizawa, K.; Saigusa, T. 2001: Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure, with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera). Systematic entomology, 26: 1-13.
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