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Nuvola apps important.svg The status, affinity, scope or nomenclature of this taxon is disputed.

Please see discussion on the talk page.


Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Panarthropoda
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Classis: Insecta
Cladus: Dicondylia
Subclassis: Pterygota
Cladus: Metapterygota
Infraclassis: Neoptera
Cladus: Eumetabola
Cladus: Paraneoptera
Superordo: Condylognatha
Ordo: Hemiptera
Subordines (5): Auchenorrhyncha - Clypeorrhyncha - Coleorrhyncha - Heteroptera - Sternorrhyncha


  • Campbell, B.C.; Steffen-Campbell, J.D.; Sorensen, J.T.; Gill, R.J. 1995: Paraphyly of Homoptera and Auchenorrhyncha inferred from 18S rDNA nucleotide sequences. Systematic entomology, 20(3): 175–194. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1995.tb00090.x
  • Coscarón, M.D.C., Basset, C. & Lopez, N. 2015: Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina. Zootaxa 3977(1): 1–101. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3977.1.1. Preview (PDF) ISBN 978-1-77557-733-1 (paperback); ISBN 978-1-77557-734-8 (Online edition) Reference page
  • Cryan, J.R.; Urban, J.M. (early view, 2011): Higher-level phylogeny of the insect order Hemiptera: is Auchenorrhyncha really paraphyletic? Systematic entomology, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2011.00611.x
  • Dohlen, C.D. von; Moran, N.A. 1995: Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon. Journal of molecular evolution, 41: 211–223.
  • Forero, D. 2008: The systematics of the Hemiptera. Revista Columbiana de Entomologia, 34(1): 1–21. [1]
  • Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. 2005: Evolution of the insects. Cambridge University Press.
  • Sorensen, J.T.; Campbell, B.C.; Gill, R.J.; Steffen-Campbell, J.D. 1995: Non-monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha ("Homoptera"), based upon 18S rDNA phylogeny: eco-evolutionary and cladistic implications with pre-Heteropteroidea Hemiptera (s.l.) and a proposal for new monophyletic suborders. Pan-Pacific entomologist, 71(1): 31–60.
  • Bourgoin, T.; Campbell, B.C. 2002: Inferring a phylogeny for Hemiptera: Falling into the "Autapomorphic Trap". Denisia, 4: 67–82.
  • Yoshizawa, K.; Saigusa, T. 2001: Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure, with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera). Systematic entomology, 26(1): 1–13. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-3113.2001.00133.x
  • Bourgoin T.; Swzedo J.; Lefèbvre, F. 2004: About Hemiptera phylogeny and Classification, :11-36. In: Fossil Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) of the world. An annotated catalogue with notes on Hemiptera classification. Swzedo, J., Th. Bourgoin & F. Lefèbvre. J. Swzedo edt., Warsaw 2004, 199 pp + 8 pl.
  • Ruschel, T.P.; Guidoti, M.; Barcellos, A. 2013: The Hemiptera type-material housed in the “Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul” of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Zootaxa 3716(4): 539–564. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3716.4.3 Reference page

Additional references[edit]


Vernacular names[edit]

Alemannisch: Schnabelchärfler
беларуская: Клапы
বাংলা: হেমিপটেরা
čeština: polokřídlí
Deutsch: Schnabelkerfe
English: True Bugs
suomi: Nivelkärsäiset
Nordfriisk: Hualewjügeten
français: Hémiptères
日本語: カメムシ目 (半翅目)
한국어: 노린재목 (반시목)
polski: pluskwiaki
português: Hemípteros
slovenščina: Polkrilci
Türkçe: Yarımkanatlılar
中文: 半翅目
For more multimedia, look at Hemiptera on Wikimedia Commons.