Solanum terminale

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Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Solanales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Solanoideae
Tribus: Solaneae
Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: S. subg. Lyciosolanum
Species: Solanum terminale

Name[edit]

Solanum terminale Forssk. (1775:45)

  • Lectotype: Herb. Forsskal 419 (C10003105, C)
  • Isolectotype: Herb. Forsskal 406 (C10003106, C)
  • Type locality: yemen. "Mokhaja" [Mukhajah =Jebel Barad].

Synonyms[edit]

(After Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016; Where the holotype or lectotype was destroyed at B, they seem to have preferred hoping that duplicates might surface instead of making any attempt at all with choosing a lectotype amongst potential surviving paratypes.)

Heterotypic
  • Solanum bifurcatum Hochst. ex A.Rich. (1851:98)
  • Solanum bifurcum Hochst. ex Dunal (1852:77), nom. illeg. superfl.
    • Lectotype: G.H.W. Schimper 201 (P00344566, P)
    • Isolectotypes: P (P00344587, P00341599, P00344570, P00344567), BM (BM000847558), BR (BR0000006289041, BR0000008422248), E (E00193277), G (G00301682, G00343569), G-DC (G00144683), GH (GH00139638), GOET (GOET003592), HBG (HBG511409), HOH (HOH009830), LE (3 sheets), K (K000232603), M (M0105581, M0105582), MPU (MPU011243, MPU011244), NY (NY00169749), OXF, PAL, REG (REG000401), S (S-09-33851, S-09-33853, S-115601), STU (STU000029, STU000028), U (U0113932), US (US-945142, barcode US00730876), W (W0000632, W1889-0283815)
      • Designated by Lester (1997).
    • Type location: Ethiopia. Tigray: Adoa [Adwa], 14 Jun 18379.
    • S. bifurcum does not qualify as an orthographic variant (contra Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016), but refers to the same Schimper material as Richard, and as such is homotypic.
  • Solanum inconstans C.H.Wright (1894:127)
  • Solanum terminale subsp. inconstans (C.H.Wright) Heine (1960:247)
    • Lectotype: G. Mann 62 (K000414056, K)
    • Isolectotypes: P (P00341583)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Equatorial Guinea. Bioco: "Fernando Po", Dec 1859.
  • Solanum phytolaccoides C.H.Wright (1894:126)
    • Lectotype: G.H.W. Schimper 310 (K000232602, K)
    • Isolectotypes: BM (BM000838174, BM000838175), E (E00526857), US (US-806525)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Ethiopia. [Amhara/Tigray]: "ex Tigrè v. Begemder", 24 Sep 1862/13 Sep 1863.
  • Solanum welwitschii C.H.Wright (1894:126)
  • Solanum terminale subsp. welwitschii (C.H.Wright) Heine (1960:248)
    • Lectotype: F.M.J. Welwitsch 6098 (BM000838177, BM)
    • Isolectotypes: K (K000414110), LISU (LISU220797)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Angola. Cuanza Norte: Golungo Alto.
  • Solanum welwitschii var. oblongum C.H.Wright (1894:127)
    • Lectotype: G. Mann 10 (K000414053, K)
    • Isolectotypes: P (P00331492)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012:113).
    • Type location: Cameroon. Sud-Ouest: Ambas Bay
  • Solanum welwitschii var. strictum C.H.Wright (1894:127)
    • Lectotype: G. Mann 274 (K000414054, K)
    • Isolectotypes: P (P00331491)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Equatorial Guinea. Bioco: "Fernando Po", 1860.
  • Solanum campanuliflorum C.H.Wright (1894:127)
    • Lectotype: H.H. Johnston s.n. (K00414073, K)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Angola. Cunene: Cunene [River], Sep 1883.
  • Solanum nakurense C.H.Wright (1897:275)
    • Holotype: G.F. Scott-Elliot 6800 (K000096900, K)
    • Isotypes: BM (BM000847730)
    • Type location: Kenya. Rift Valley: "Masai [Nakuru ex protologue]", 1893.
  • Solanum symphyostemon De Wild. & T.Durand (1899: 44)
    • Lectotype: F. Thonner 96 (BR0000008993137, BR)
    • Isolectotypes: BR (BR0000008994462), K (K000414043)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012:113).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Équateur: "Bolombo, près de Ngala [Ngali]", 21 Sep 1896.
  • Solanum lujaei De Wild. & T.Durand (1899:209)
    • Lectotype: É. Luja 112 (BR0000014800313, BR)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bas-Congo: "Sona Gunga, cataractes", 21 Nov 1898.
  • Solanum togoense Dammer (1906a:59)
    • Lectotype: F.R.R. Schlechter 12974 (K000414055, K)
    • Isolectotypes: BM (BM000838103), BR (BR0000006288921), P (P00341582)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012:110).
    • Type location: Togo. Maritime: Badja, Mar 1900.
  • Solanum buchwaldii Dammer (1906b:180)
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. buchwaldii (Dammer) Bitter (1917:459)
    • Lectotype: J. Buchwald 542 (B, destroyed, no duplicate known)
      • Designated by Bitter (1917:450).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Tanga: Usambara (Mtns., Lushoto District), Muafa, Apr (1900).
  • Solanum bilabiatum Dammer (1906b:181)
    • Holotype: A.F. Moller 146 (Type probably at B and destroyed, no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: São Tomé and Principe. São Tomé: Sin. loc., 2-7 m, (1885).
  • Solanum comorense Dammer (1906b:181)
    • Neotype: L. Humblot 1284 (P00184319, P)
    • Isoneotypes: BM (BM000887171), K (K000788514)
      • Designated by D'Arcy & Rakotozafy (1994:126). This material may be original and a lectotype instead, see D'Arcy & Rakotozafy (1994:127) for a detailed discussion.
    • Type location: Mayotte (French Overseas Department). Maore: forêt du Combani, 6 Oct 1884.
  • Solanum laurentii Dammer (1906b:182), nom. illeg. non S. laurentii De Wild., 1905 (=S. anomalum Thonn., 1827)
  • Solanum subcoriaceum T.Durand & H.Durand (1909:394), nom. nov.
    • Holotype: "Congo, Laurent s.n." (probably destroyed at B, no duplicate found)
    • Neotype: M. Laurent 701 (BR0000014801273, BR)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016), see that publication for details regarding the difficulty of determining possible duplicates of the holotype.
    • Type locality: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Équateur: environs d'Eala, 11 May 1905.
  • Solanum plousianthemum Dammer (1906b:180)
    • Lectotype: C. Holst 3731 (B, destroyed, no duplicate known)
      • Designated by Bitter (1917:457). The lectotypification of Edmonds (2012) is superfluous, and would make this name homotypic with Bitter's var. conglutinans (Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. "Usambara, im Gebüsch niederer Hügel", Jul 1892.
  • Solanum suberosum Dammer (1906b:182)
    • Type: 7 syntypes, no duplicate yet located (Kanpp & Vorontsova, 2016)
  • Solanum preussii Dammer (1906b:183)
    • Lectotype: P.R. Preuss 397 (P00331480, P)
    • Isolectotype: E (E00193273)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Cameroon. Sud-Ouest: "Barombi Station", Aug 1890.
  • Solanum lykipiense C.H.Wright (1906:220)
  • Solanum nakurense var. lykipiense (C.H.Wright) Bitter (1917:449)
    • Lectotype: J. Thomson s.n. (K000096902, K)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Kenya. Rift Valley: Lykypia, 6000-8000 ft.
  • Solanum mangaschae Pax (1907:648)
    • Holotype: F. Rosen s.n. (WRSL?)
    • Type location: Ethiopia. Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples: "Amaniel am Gazerit", 2300, 2 Apr 1905.
  • Solanum leucanthum Dammer (1911:284)
    • Type: 2 syntypes, no duplicate yet located (Kanpp & Vorontsova, 2016)
  • Solanum aculeolatum Dammer (1912:237), nom. illeg. non S. aculeolatum M.Martens & Galeotti, 1845 (=S. refractum Hook. & Arn., 1838)
  • Solanum massaiense Bitter (1912:18), nom. nov.
    • Lectotype: F. Thomas s.n. (E00193280, E, holotype at B destroyed, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Kenya. "Escarpment, in Lichtungen", 2500 m, Feb 1903.
  • Solanum penduliflorum Dammer (1912:255)
    • Holotype: G.S. Baker 133 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Kenya. Rift Valley: "Mau Plateau, common railway cuttings and open places, Molo, Ravine, Londiani and Njoro", 2300-3000 m.
  • Solanum bansoense Dammer (1912:237)
    • Holotype: C.L. Ledermann 5778 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Cameroon. Nord-Ouest: "Bansso-Gebirge", 1700 m, Oct 1909.
  • Solanum holtzii Dammer (1915:329)
  • Solanum plousianthemum subsp. holtzii (Dammer) Bitter (1917:467)
    • Holotype: W. Holtz 3148 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Tanzania. Morogoro: "Uluguru, Bez. Morogoro, Waldreservat Banduki II", Mar 1913.
  • Solanum rhodesianum Dammer (1915:326)
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. rhodesianum (Dammer) Bitter (1917:461)
    • Lectotype: C.F.M. Swynnerton 86 (K000414111, K)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000414112), BM (BM000838178)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Zimbabwe. Manicaland: Melener, Chirinda Forest, 9 Oct 1905.
  • Solanum stolzii Dammer (1915:327)
    • Lectotype: A. Stolz 1035 (M0105595, M)
    • Isolectotype: B (B100165205), C (C10003110), G (G00343580), K (K000096901), S (S09-36468), W (W19150004892)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Mbeya: Rungwe Crater, Kyimbila Station, 2000 m, 19 Dec 1911.
  • Solanum meyeri-johannis Dammer (1915:328)
    • Holotype: Dr. Houy 1242 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Tanzania. "Ussagara, Bez. Kilossa, Bugaberge" Nov-Dec 1911.
  • Solanum lateritium Dammer (1915:325)
    • Lectotype: A. Stolz 1514 (JE00004286, JE)
    • Isolectotype: G (G00442975), K (K000413992), S (S-G-5699), U (U0113933), WAG (WAG0003361), W (W19150008146, W19150004892)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Mbeya: Kyimbila Station, 600-800 m, Aug 1912.
  • Solanum leucanthum [[Friedrich August Georg Bitter|Bitter]] & Dammer (1917:456), nom. illeg. non S. leucanthum Dammer, 1911.
    • Holotype: J. Mildbraed 894 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Rwanda. Western: Rukarara, Rugege Forest, 2900 m, Aug 1907.
  • Solanum hemisymphyes Bitter (1917:477)
    • Holotype: J. Mildbraed 2238 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nord-Kivu: Kwa Muera, Fort Beni, Jun 1908.
  • Solanum plousianthemum subsp. kasima Bitter (1917:468)
    • Lectotype: A. Stolz 355 (G00070223, G)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000413993)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Mbeya: Neu-Langenburg, Kyimbila, 1350 m, Oct 1912.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. angustifrons Bitter (1917:462)
    • Holotype: G. Volkens 2109 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Tanzania. Kilimanjaro: Mount Kilimanjaro, Marangu, 1500 m, Apr 1894.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. commixtum Bitter (1917:464)
    • Lectotype: H.H.Johnston s.n. (K000413995, K)
    • Isolectotype: BM (BM000838176)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Kilimanjaro: Mount Kilimanjaro, ca. 1600 m, May 1894.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. conglutinans Bitter (1917:461)
    • Lectotype: C. Holst 8927 (P00341605, P)
    • Isolectotype: COI (COI00077085), K (K000413989), LE, W (W18940006582)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Tanga: Usambaras, Kwa Mshuza, "Handei", 1570 m, Aug 1893.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. devians Bitter (1917:466)
    • Holotype: J. Mildbraed 336 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Rwanda. "Mpororo (Rufua), Issenge-Posten, an nordlichen Zuflussen Kagera", Jul 1907.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. endosiphonotrichum Bitter (1917:466)
    • Holotype: Dr. Kandt 147 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Rwanda. Southern: Mount Niansa (Nyanza), 1700 m.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. microstelidium Bitter (1917:461)
    • Holotype: H. Meyer 909 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Rwanda. Western: Lake Kivu, Lubengera, Mugarura Island.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. epapillosum Bitter (1917:464)
    • Holotype: G. Volkens 1991 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Tanzania. Kilimanjaro: Mount Kilimanjaro, Useri, 2200 m, Mar 1894.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. gracilifilum Bitter (1917:463)
    • Lectotype: G. Volkens 2265 (BR0000006495794, BR)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Kilimanjaro: Mount Kilimanjaro, Marangu, 2000 m, May 1894.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. subtusbarbellatum Bitter (1917:467)
    • Lectotype: L.C.T. Kässner 804 (BM000847733, BM)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000788864)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Kenya. Eastern: (Kitui County), Galunka (Galinka), 25 May 1902.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. ugandae Bitter (1917:460)
    • Lectotype: F. Stuhlmann 1329 (K000413994, K)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: "Uganda", 1 Jan 1891.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. kundelunguense Bitter (1917:467)
    • Lectotype: L.C.T. Kässner 2760 (BM000847803, BM)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000414041), P (P00341576)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Katanga: Kundelungu, 15 May 1908.
  • Solanum ruandae Bitter (1917:471)
    • Holotype: J. Mildbraed 1431a (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Rwanda/Democratic Republic of the Congo: Kissenye, "Bugoyer Hügelland, Hecken", 2100 m, 27 Oct 1907.
  • Solanum suberosum var. calvum Bitter} (1917:486)
    • Syntypes: A. Weberbauer 38, 60 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Type. Cameroon. Sud-Ouest (?): "Nordwestkamerum, Spitze des Kamerumberges" [Mount Cameroon)].
  • Solanum suberosum var. ramosivelutinum Bitter (1917:486)
    • Holotype: J. Mildbraed 3038 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale: Ituri, Irumu-Mawambi, Apr.
  • Solanum sychnoteranthum Bitter (1917:471)
    • Lectotype: L.C.T. Kässner 3250 (E00193274, E)
    • Isolectotype: BM (BM000847732), P (P00331494)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo(?). "lava plain", 18 Aug 1908.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. angustatum Bitter (1922:302)
    • Holotype: W. von Brehmer 891 (herbarium unknown; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Tanzania. Morogoro: "Ulugurus", 19 Oct 1013.
  • Solanum plousianthemum var. kyimbilense Bitter (1922:302)
    • Lectotype: A. Stolz 2315 (K000413990, K)
    • Isolectotype: K (K000414991), A (A00139637, A00219304), BM (BM000838180), BR (BR0000006495107), CAS (CAS-130438), P (P00341613)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Tanzania. Mbeya: Bex, Neu-Langenburg, Kyimbila, near Madehani, 2000 m, 3 Dec 1913.
  • Solanum bansoense var. episporadotrichum Bitter (1922:303)
    • Holotype: G. Mildbraed 8555 (B, destroyed; no duplicate found, Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)
    • Type location: Cameroon. Est: at junction of Sanaga [River?] with the Djerem [River], ["hylaea um Deng-Deng"], 250 km NE of Yaounde, between Mbo's and Sardi, southwest of Deng-Deng, 8 Mar 1914.
  • Solanum bansoense subsp. sanaganum Bitter (1922:304)
  • Solanum terminale subsp. sanaganum (Bitter) Heine (1960:248)
    • Lectotype: G. Mildbraed 8619 (K000414042, K)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Cameroon. Est: at junction of Sanaga [River?] with the Djerem [River], ["hylaea um Deng-Deng"], 250 km NE of Yaounde, between Mbo's and Sardi, southwest of Deng-Deng, 8 Mar 1914.
  • Solanum welwitschii var. laxepaniculatum Bitter (1922:306)
    • Lectotype: G. Mildbraed 5265 (HBG511510, HBG)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Cameroon. Est: [Upper Nyong District], Lomie District, Dscha region, in Tugumedjo's village, 13°30-12°25 W latitude, 18 May 1911.
  • Solanum lianiforme De Wild. (1922:427)
    • Lectotype: J. Bequaert 6531 (BR0000008993489, BR)
    • Isolectotype: BR (BR0000008994448, 2 sheets)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nord-Kivu: Walikale, 7 Jan 1915.
  • Solanum butaguense De Wild. (1922:424)
    • Lectotype: J. Bequaert 3616 (BR0000008994431, BR)
    • Isolectotype: BR (BR0000008993502, BR0000008993472)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Nord-Kivu: Butagu, Ruwenzori, ca. 2200 m, 13 Apr 1914.
  • Solanum balboanum Chiov. (1935:87)
    • Lectotype: P.G. Balbo 579 (FT003031, FT)
      • Designated by Knapp & Vorontsova (2016).
    • Type location: Kenya. Central: Tusu, 1 Feb 1911.

References[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

(Knapp & Vorontsova, 2016)

lingála: Kongalo N Pako
Kirundi: Agatoretore
Kinyarwanda: Umuranuhankuba