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Geranium sanguineum


Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids II
Ordo: Geraniales
Familiae: Francoaceae – Geraniaceae – Greyiaceae – Melianthaceae – Vivianiaceae


Geraniales Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl Prir. Rostlin, 221. (1820)


  • Francoales
  • Greyiales
  • Ledocarpales
  • Melianthales

Note: See discussion page, but the 5 family circumscription is not supported by APGIV (2016).


  • Jussieu, A.L. de 1820. O Prirozenosti Rostlin 221.
  • Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 1–20. DOI: 10.1111/boj.12385 Reference page.  Favours two families.
  • Applequist, W.L. 2012. Report of the nomenclature committee for vascular plants: 64. Taxon 61(5): 1108–1117. There was no consensus for or against a proposal to superconserve Melianthaceae against Francoaceae.
  • Jeiter, J., Weigend, M. & Hilger, H.H. 2017. Geraniales flowers revisited: evolutionary trends in floral nectaries. Annals of Botany 119(3): 395-408. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw230 Open access Reference page.  Favours five families.
  • Palazzesi, L., Gottschling, M., Barreda, V., & Weigend, M. 2012. First Miocene fossils of Vivianiaceae shed new light on phylogeny, divergence times, and historical biogeography of Geraniales. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107: 67–85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.01910.x ResearchGate Reference page.  Favours five families.
  • Reveal, J.L. 2009. (1915) Proposal to conserve Melianthaceae, nom. cons., against Francoaceae (Magnoliophyta), a superconservation proposal. Taxon 58(4): 1373–1374.
  • Stevens, P.F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14, July 2017 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Online. Reference page.  Favours two families.
  • Sytsma, K.J., Spalink, D. & Berger, B. 2014. Calibrated chronograms, fossils, outgroup relationships, and root priors: re‐examining the historical biogeography of Geraniales. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 113(1): 29-49. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12297 PDF Reference page.  Ambiguously favours two families.
  • 2014. Geraniales. Missouri Botanical Garden. Published online. Accessed: 25 Jan. 2014.

Vernacular names[edit]

العربية: غرنوقيات
azərbaycanca: Ətirşahçiçəklilər
беларуская: Геранекветныя
català: Geranials
čeština: kakostotvaré
dansk: Storkenæb-ordenen
Deutsch: Storchschnabelartige
فارسی: شمعدانی‌سانان
עברית: גרנאים
hrvatski: Iglicolike
magyar: Gólyaorrvirágúak
日本語: フウロソウ目
한국어: 쥐손이풀목
lietuvių: Snaputiečiai
македонски: Здравцовидни
norsk: Storkenebbordenen
polski: Bodziszkowce
русский: Гераниецветные
slovenčina: pakostotvaré
svenska: Näveordningen
తెలుగు: జిరానియేలిస్
українська: Геранієцвіті
Tiếng Việt: Bộ Mỏ hạc
中文: 牻牛儿苗目
For more multimedia, look at Geraniales on Wikimedia Commons.