Equisetum arvense

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Equisetum arvense sterile shoots; Newcastle, Northumberland, UK
Equisetum arvense strobilus; Aisne, France

Taxonavigation[edit]

Taxonavigation: Equisetales 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Divisio: Tracheophyta
Divisio: Pteridophyta
Classis: Equisetopsida
Ordo: Equisetales

Familia: Equisetaceae
Genus: Equisetum
Subgenus: E. subg. Equisetum
Species: Equisetum arvense

Name[edit]

Equisetum arvense L., Sp. Pl. 2: 1061. 1753.

  • Type locality:"Habitat in Europae agris, pratis"
  • Lectotype (designated by Jonsell & Jarvis in Nordic J. Bot. 14: 148. 1994): Clayton 341 (BM-000062951).

Synonyms[edit]

  • Homotypic
    • Allostelites arvensis (L.) Börner, Fl. Deut. Volk 59 (1912).
  • Heterotypic
    • Equisetum arvense var. alpestre Wahlenb., Fl. Lapponica 296 (1812).
      • Equisetum arvense f. alpestre (Wahlenb.) Döll, Fl. Baden 1(1): 59 (1855).
      • Equisetum arvense subsp. alpestre (Wahlenb.) Schönsw. & Elven, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 2(1): 433 (2008).
      • Equisetum alpestre (Wahlenb.) Landolt, Fl. Indicativa 269 (2010).
    • Equisetum arvense f. agreste (Klinge) E.Baumann, (1911).
    • Equisetum arvense var. arcticum Rupr., Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches 3: 21. 1845.
      • Equisetum arvense f. arcticum (Rupr.) M.Broun, Index N. Amer. Ferns 84 (1938).
    • Equisetum arvense var. arenicola Heimerl, Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 31: 184 (1882).
    • Equisetum arvense f. atratidens Lepage, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 46: 755 (1952).
    • Equisetum boreale Bong., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(4): 174 (1832).
      • Equisetum arvense var. boreale (Bong.) Rupr., Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Sér. 6, Sci. Math. 2(4): 174 (1832).
      • Equisetum arvense f. boreale (Bong.) Klinge, Arch. Naturk. Liv- Ehst- Kurlands, Ser. 2, Biol. Naturk. 8: 369 (1882)
      • Equisetum arvense subsp. boreale (Bong.) Tolm., Flora Arct. URSS 1: 46 (1960).
    • Equisetum arvense f. caespitosum J.Rousseau, Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 66 (Ser. Biol. no. 17): 5 (1931).
    • Equisetum calderi B.Boivin, Amer. Fern J. 50: 107 (1960).
    • Equisetum campestre Schultz, Flor. Starg. suppl. 1: 59. 1819.
      • Equisetum arvense f. campestre (Schultz) Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 897 (1864).
      • Equisetum arvense var. campestre (Schultz) Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 2: 192 (1859).
    • Equisetum arvense var. campestre (Schultz) Milde, Monogr. Equiset. (1867), comb. superfl..
    • Equisetum arvense var. coaetaneum Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7(51): 410 (1857).
    • Equisetum arvense subvar. decumbens G.Mey., Chloris Han. 667 (1836).
      • Equisetum arvense var. decumbens (G.Mey.) Döll, Rhein. Fl.: 27 (1843)
      • Equisetum arvense var. decumbens (G.Mey.) Milde, Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 26: 421 (1859), comb. superfl..
      • Equisetum arvense f. decumbens (G.Mey.) W.D.J.Koch, Syn. Fl. Germ. Helv., ed. 2. 964 (1845).
    • Equisetum arvense var. diffusum A.A.Eaton, List N. Amer. Pterid. 8, 25 (1901).
      • Equisetum arvense f. diffusum (A.A.Eaton) Clute, Fern Allies 47, 256 (1905).
    • Equisetum arvense var. erectum Hayne, Getreue Darstell. Gew. 3: t. 46 (1813).
    • Equisetum arvense var. frondescens Döll, Fl. Baden 1(1): 58. (1855).
    • Equisetum arvense var. granulatum G.Lawson, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 7: 561 (1863).
    • Equisetum arvense f. irriguum (Milde) W.F.Christ., (1922).
    • Equisetum arvense f. loennbohmii Dörfl., Jahreskat. Wiener Bot. Tauschanst. 1904: 228 (1904).
    • Equisetum arvense f. macrostachyum A.A.Eaton, Fern Bull. 7: 87 (1899).
    • Equisetum arvense f. microstachyum A.A.Eaton, Fern Bull. 7: 87 (1899).
    • Equisetum minus Garsault, Fig. Pl. Med. 2: t. 258 (1764). opus utiq. oppr.
    • Equisetum arvense var. nanum A.Braun ex Döll, Fl. Baden: 59. (1855)
      • Equisetum arvense f. nanum (A.Braun) M.Broun, Index N. Amer. Ferns 85 (1938).
    • Equisetum arvense f. nemorosum A.Braun ex Döll, Rhein. Fl. 27 (1843).
      • Equisetum arvense var. nemorosum (A.Braun ex Döll) A.Braun & Engelm., Amer. J. Sci. Arts 46: 83 (1844).
      • Equisetum nemorosum (A.Braun) Bellynck, Fl. Namur 318. 1855.
      • Equisetum arvense f. nemorosum (A.Braun) Murr, Neue Uebersicht Farn- & Blütenpfl. Vorarlb.: 11 (1923), comb. superfl..
    • Equisetum arvense var. nudum Milde exc Farw., Ann. Rep. Mich. Acad. Sci 6: 209 (1904).
    • Equisetum polycladum Fr., Novit. Fl. Suec. 16 (1814).
    • Equisetum arvense var. polystachyon A.A.Eaton, Fern Bull. 7: 88 (1899).
      • Equisetum arvense f. polystachyon (A.A.Eaton) M.Broun, Index N. Amer. Ferns 85 (1938).
    • Equisetum arvense monstr. proliferum Luerss., Farnpflanzen 3: 701 (1888).
      • Equisetum arvense var. proliferum (Luerss.) Farw., Amer. Fern J. 27: 16 (1937).
      • Equisetum arvense f. proliferum (Luerss.) M.Broun, Index N. Amer. Ferns 85 (1938).
    • Equisetum arvense f. pseudoalpestre Vict., Contr. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montréal 9: 36, fig. 5, 116 (1927).
    • Equisetum arvense f. pseudonemorosum B.Boivin, Canad. Field-Naturalist 65: 18 (1951).
    • Equisetum arvense f. pseudovarium Vict., Contr. Lab. Bot. Univ. Montréal 9: 37, 116 (1927).
    • Equisetum arvense var. ramosissimum Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7(51): 410 (1857).
    • Equisetum arvense var. ramulosum Rupr., Beitr. Pflanzenk. Russ. Reiches 3: 19 (1845).
      • Equisetum arvense f. ramulosum (Rupr.) Klinge, Arch. Naturk. Liv- Ehst- Kurlands, Ser. 2, Biol. Naturk. 8: 369 (1882)
      • Equisetum arvense subsp. ramulosum (Rupr.) W.F.Rapp, Amer. Fern J. 37: 21 (1947).
    • Equisetum riparium Fr., Novit. Fl. Suec. Mant. 3(VII–XIII): 167 (1845).
      • Equisetum arvense f. riparium (Fr.) Asch., Fl. Brandenburg 1: 897 (1864).
      • Equisetum arvense var. riparium (Fr.) Milde, Monogr. Equiset. 223 (1867).
    • Equisetum arvense var. robustum Schur, Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7(51): 410 (1857).
    • Equisetum saxicola Suksd., Deutsche Bot. Monatsschr. 19: 93 (1901).
    • Equisetum arvense var. triangulare Waters, Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. 14: 25 (1895).

Hybrids[edit]

Distribution[edit]

Native distribution areas:
  • Continental: Europe
    • Regional: Northern Europe
      • Denmark, Finland, Føroyar, Great Britain, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Svalbard (Jan Mayen, Spitsbergen), Sweden.
    • Regional: Middle Europe
      • Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic, Slovakia), Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Poland, Switzerland.
    • Regional: Southwestern Europe
      • Baleares, Corse, Portugal, Sardegna, Spain.
    • Regional: Southeastern Europe
      • Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Kriti, Romania, Sicilia (Sicily, Malta), Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia).
    • Regional: Eastern Europe
      • Belarus, Baltic States (Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania), Krym, Central European Russia, East European Russia, North European Russia, South European Russia, Northwest European Russia, Ukraine.
  • Continental: Africa
    • Regional: Northern Africa
      • Algeria (doubtful), Morocco.
    • Regional: Macaronesia
      • Azores (Sao Miguel, introduced).
  • Continental: Asia-Temperate
    • Regional: Siberia
      • Altay, Buryatiya, Chita, Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, Tuva, West Siberia, Yakutiya.
    • Regional: Russian Far East
      • Amur, Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Kuril Islands, Magadan, Primorye, Sakhalin.
    • Regional: Middle Asia
      • Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Turkmenistan, Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan.
    • Regional: Caucasus
      • North Caucasus, Transcaucasus.
    • Regional: Western Asia
      • Afghanistan, Cyprus, East Aegean Islands, Iran, Iraq, Turkey.
    • Regional: China
      • China South-Central, Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Manchuria, China North-Central, Qinghai, China Southeast, Tibet, Xinjiang.
    • Regional: Mongolia
      • Mongolia
    • Regional: Eastern Asia
      • Japan, Korea.
  • Continental: Asia-Tropical
    • Regional: Indian Subcontinent
      • East Himalaya, India, Nepal, Pakistan, West Himalaya.
  • Continental: Australasia (all introduced)
    • Regional: Australia
      • New South Wales, Victoria.
    • Regional: New Zealand
      • New Zealand North, New Zealand South.
  • Continental: Northern America
    • Regional: Subarctic America
      • Aleutian Islands, Alaska, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, Yukon.
    • Regional: Western Canada
      • Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, Saskatchewan.
    • Regional: Eastern Canada
      • Labrador, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Isle, Québec.
    • Regional: Northwestern U.S.A.
      • Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.
    • Regional: North-Central U.S.A.
      • Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Wisconsin.
    • Regional: Northeastern U.S.A.
      • Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia.
    • Regional: Southwestern U.S.A.
      • Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah.
    • Regional: South-Central U.S.A.
      • New Mexico, Texas.
    • Regional: Southeastern U.S.A.
      • Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia.
  • Continental: Southern America
    • Regional: Western South America
      • Bolivia.(introduced)

References: Brummitt, R.K. 2001. TDGW – World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, 2nd Edition

References[edit]

Primary references[edit]

Additional references[edit]

Links[edit]

Vernacular names[edit]

العربية: كنباث الحقول
azərbaycanca: Tarla qatırquyruğu
беларуская: Хвошч палявы
български: Полски хвощ
bosanski: Preslica
català: Cua de cavall petita
kaszëbsczi: Chòszczka
čeština: Přeslička rolní
dansk: Ager-Padderok
Deutsch: Acker-Schachtelhalm
English: Field Horsetail
español: Cola de caballo del campo
suomi: Peltokorte
français: Prêle des champs
hornjoserbsce: Přaska
magyar: Mezei zsurló
íslenska: Klóelfting
italiano: Coda cavallina dei campi
日本語: スギナ
한국어: 쇠뜨기
lietuvių: Dirvinis asiūklis
latviešu: Tīruma kosa
Plattdüütsch: Duwock
Nederlands: Heermoes
norsk: Åkersnelle
Diné bizaad: Ałtį́į́ jikʼáshí áłtsʼózígíí
polski: Skrzyp polny
português: Cavalinha
română: Coada-calului
русский: Хвощ полевой
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Rastavić
српски / srpski: Раставић
svenska: Åkerfräken
українська: Хвощ польовий
中文: 問荊
For more multimedia, look at Equisetum arvense on Wikimedia Commons.