Spirocerca lupi

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Spirocerca lupi


Taxonavigation: Spiruroidea 

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Cladus: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Cladus: Holozoa
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Cladus: Cycloneuralia
Cladus: Nematoida
Phylum: Nematoda
Classis: Chromadorea
Ordo: Rhabditida
Subordo: Spirurina
Infraordo: Spiruromorpha
Superfamilia: Spiruroidea

Familia: Spirocercidae
Genus: Spirocerca
Species: Spirocerca lupi


  • Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi, 1809)


  • Anataraman, M.; Krishna, S. 1966: Experimental spirocercosis in dogs with larvae from a paratenic host, Calotes versicolor, the common garden lizard in Madras. Journal of parasitology, 52(5): 911–912. JSTOR
  • Bailey, W.S. 1963: Parasites and cancer: sarcoma in dogs associated with Spirocerca lupi. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 108: 890–923. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1963.tb13429.x
  • Bailey, W.S. 1972: Spirocerca lupi: A continuing inquiry. Journal of parasitology, 58(1): 3–22. JSTOR
  • Bailey, W.S.; Cabrera, D.J.; Diamond, D.L. 1963: Beetles of the family Scarabaeidae as intermediate hosts for Spirocerca lupi. Journal of parasitology, 49(3): 485–488. JSTOR
  • Chhabra, R.C. 1970: Some studies on Spirocerca lupi (Rudolphi 1809) Chitwood, 1933. Agra University journal of research, 19(3): 83–85. abstract only seen Reference page
  • Chhabra, R.C.; Singh, K.S. 1973: A study of the life-history of Spirocerca lupi: intermediate hosts and their biology. Indian journal of animal science, 43: 49–54.
  • Chhabra, R.C.; Singh, K.S. 1977: The life-history of Spirocerca lupi: development and biology of infective juvenile. Indian journal of animal science, 47(4): 178–184.
  • Christie, J. et al. 2011: The sensitivity of direct faecal examination, direct faecal flotation, modified centrifugal faecal flotation and centrifugal sedimentation/flotation in the diagnosis of canine spirocercosis. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 82(2): 71–75. abstract and full article (PDF)
  • de Waal, P.J. et al. 2011: High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population. Veterinary parasitology, 187(1–2): 259–266. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.12.008
  • Du Toit, C.A. 2011: Dynamics of the association between dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the dog parasite Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda: Spiruromorpha: Spirocercidae). Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Pretoria, South Africa. full thesis in parts (PDF)
  • Du Toit, C.A.; Scholtz, C.H.; Hyman, W.B. 2008: Prevalence of the dog nematode Spirocerca lupi in populations of its intermediate dung beetle host in the Pretoria Metropole, South Africa. Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 75(4): 315–321. DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v75i4.107
  • Du Toit, C.A. et al. 2012: Role of dung beetle feeding mechanisms in limiting the suitability of species as hosts for the nematode Spirocerca lupi. Medical and veterinary entomology, 26(4): 455–457. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2915.2011.01008.x
  • Gottlieb, Y. et al. 2011: Characterization of Onthophagus sellatus as the major intermediate host of the dog esophageal worm Spirocerca lupi in Israel. Veterinary parasitology, 180(3–4): 378–382. DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.03.008
  • Gottlieb, Y. et al. 2012: A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi. BMC microbiology, 12: 133. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-133
  • Mazaki-Tovi, M. et al. 2002: Canine spirocercosis: clinical, diagnostic, pathologic, and epidemiologic characteristics. Veterinary parasitology, 107(3): 235–250. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-4017(02)00118-8
  • Last, R.; Smith, R. 2007: Spirocerca lupi - fascinating new facts and research opportunities. Vet News – Newsletter of the South African Veterinary Association, July 2007: 25–30. full article (PDF)
  • Segovia, J.M. et al. 2001: Morphological and morphometric study of Spirocerca lupi. Helminthologia, 38(3): 115–121.
  • Trueman, K.F. et al. 1980: Spirocerca lupi in a dog. Australian veterinary journal, 56(10): 511. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1980.tb02573.x
  • A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.
  • Helminth Parasites of an Introduced Invasive Carnivore Species, the Raccoon (Procyon lotor L.), From the Warta Mouth National Park (Poland).
  • Archaeohelminthology of the Chiribaya Shepherd, Canis familiaris (700-1476 AD) from Southern Peru.
  • The development of the infective larva of the canine oesophageal tumour worm Spirocerca lupi in rabbits and its histopathology.
  • Spirocerca lupi in a cheetah.
  • Infestazione umana prenatale da Spirocera lupi (Rud., 1809).
  • Helmintos de los perros Canis familiaris y gatos Felis catus en la Ciudad de Mescio.
  • Spirocerca from the snow leopard.
  • The status of Spirocerca sanguinolenta (Rudolphi, 1819) Seurat, 1913.
  • Some parasitic nematodes, excluding Heterakidae and Pharyngodonidae, from amphibians and reptiles in Egypt.