Solanum nigrum

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Solanum nigrum, Oftersheim, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Solanum nigrum, Dhünn, Leverkusen, Germany

Taxonavigation[Bewerke]

Taxonavigation: Solanales 
Classification System: APG IV

Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiosperms
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: Core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Solanales

Familia: Solanaceae
Subfamilia: Solanoideae
Tribus: Solaneae
Genus: Solanum
Subgenus: S. subg. Solanum
Sectio: S. sect. Solanum
Species: Solanum nigrum

Name[Bewerke]

Solanum nigrum L. (1753:186)

  • Lectotype: "Habitat in Orbis totius cultis" S.c. s.n. (LINN 248-18)
    • Designated by Henderson (1974:16).

Synonyme[Bewerke]

(After Särkinen et al., 2018; material not found from Opiz and Presl probably at PR, as no specimen from that herbarium were examined by them and Opiz specimen are mostly to be found there.)

Homotypic
Heterotypic
  • Solanum nigrum var. vulgare L. (1753:186)
  • Solanum vulgatum (L.) Spenn. (1826:427) nom. illeg. non Baumg. (1790)
    • Lectotype: "Solanum 3 α" s.c. s.n. (BM000558026, BM)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: cultivated in George Clifford's garden in Hartekamp, The Netherlands
  • Solanum nigrum var. judaicum L. (1753:186)
    • Type: Unknown (no specimens or illustrations cited, Särkinen et al., 2018)
  • Solanum judaicum Besser (1809:183)
    • Type: Unknown (no specimens or illustrations cited, Särkinen et al., 2018)
  • Solanum parviflorum Moretti ex Badarò (1824:364), nom. illeg, non S. parviflorum Nocca (1793, =? S. corymbosum Jacq.)
  • Solanum nigrum var. perennans Bertol. (1836:634)
    • Lectotype: G.B. Badarò s.n. (G00144311, G-DC)
      • Designated by D'Arcy (1974:735).
    • Typuslokalität: Italy. Liguria. "in olivetis Liguriae occid[ose]"
  • Solanum cestrifolium Jacq. ex Spreng. (1825:680)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited or found, Särkinen et al., 2018)
  • Solanum rhinozerothis Blume (1826:695)
    • Neotype: C.L. Blume s.n. (L2883159, L)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Indonesia
  • Solanum vulgatum (L.) Spenn. var. chlorocarpum Spenn. (1829:1074)
  • Solanum nigrum var. chlorocarpum (Spenn.) Schur (1866:178)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited or found, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: Switzerland. Fribourg.
  • Solanum moschatum C.Presl (1832:77)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited or found, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: Italy. Sicily. Palermo: "in cultis ruderatis Panormi Siciliae"
  • Solanum nigrum var. atriplicifoliumDesp. ex G.Mey. (1836:265)
  • Solanum nigrum subvar. atriplicifolium (G.Mey.) Schinz & Thell. (1914:295, as "Desp. ex Dunal", the isonym)
    • Lectotype: [illegible] s.n. [annotation "Solanum atriplicifolium" in Desportes hand] (G00144334, G-DC)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: France. Pays de la Loire. "St. Germain de Calberte, basse Lozère"/"Mans [Le Mans]"
  • Solanum chenopodium Raf. (1840:107)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited, probably lost, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: "Europa"
  • Solanum exaratum Raf. (1840:107)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited, probably lost, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: "Europa"
  • Solanum Bidentatum Raf. (1840:107)
    • Type: Unknown (no original material cited, probably lost, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: "Italia, Sicilia"
  • Solanum tauschii Opiz (in Berchtold & al., 1843:xx)
    • Syntypes: I.F. Tausch s.n. [Herb. Flor. Boehm. 1076], Sadel s.n., P.M. Opiz 10/8 40
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum reineggeri Opiz (in Berchtold & al., 1843:xix)
    • Type: Reinegger s.n. (not found, Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: "Austria. Niederösterreich"
  • Solanum decipiens Opiz (in Berchtold & al., 1843:xxiv)
    • Syntypes: P.M. Opiz 10/838, .M. Opiz 23/10 835, P.M. Opiz 4/8 40, Janoti 804
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum schultesii Opiz (in Berchtold & al., 1843:xxiv)
  • Solanum nigrum var. schultesii (Opiz) Rouy (in Blom, 1935:201)
  • Solanum nigrum subsp. schultesii (Opiz) Wessely (1960:311)
    • Syntypes: P.M. Opiz 10/10 35, P.M. Opiz s.n.
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum nigrum f. stenopetalum A.Braun ex Döll (1843:412)
    • Syntypes: A. Braun s.n., A. Braun & J.C. Döll s.n.
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum nigrum f. chlorocarpum A.Braun ex Döll (1843:413)
    • Syntypes: A. Braun s.n., A. Braun & J.C. Döll s.n., J.C. Döll s.n.
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
  • Solanum guineense var. nepalense Dunal (1852:49)
    • Lectotype: Herb. Requien s.n. (AV)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Cultivated in the Avignon Botanic Garden, from eastern Nepal
  • Solanum pterocaulum var. deppei Dunal (1852:52, "pterocaulon"; S. pterocaulum = S. scabrum)
    • Neotype: s.c. s.n. ["Solanum deppei. In hortis bot. cultum"] (MPU310704, MPU)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Cultivated in France at Montpellier
  • Solanum paludosum Dunal (1852:57)
  • Solanum nigrum f. paludosum (Dunal) Miq. (1856:637)
    • Holotypus: N. Wallich 402 (G00144525, G-DC)
    • Typuslokalität: Myanmar
  • Solanum roxburghii Dunal (1852:57)
    • Lectotype: Wight, Icones plantarum Indiae Orientalis 2:t. 344. 1843
    • Epitype: R. Wight s.n. [herb. Wight 2326] (E00718973, E)
      • Both designated by Särkinen et al. (2018), see that publication for a more detailed discussion of issues related to this name and the materials connected with it.
    • Typuslokalität: Eastern India
  • Solanum memphiticum Mart. var. repandum Dunal (1852:47; S. memphiticum Mart. = S. scabrum)
    • Holotypus: W. Gerhard s.n. (G00144263, G)
    • Isotype: JE (JE00009838), W (1889-0232903, 1889-0283857)
    • Typuslokalität: Germany. Saxony: cultivated in Leipzig
  • Solanum cechicum Opiz (1854:94)
    • Type: P.M. Opiz s.n.
      • No original material located (Särkinen et al., 2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Czech Republic. Near Prague.
  • Solanum nigrum f. judaicum Miq. (1856:637), regarding authorship, see Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Lectotype: C.L. Blume s.n. (L2880952, L)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Indonesia. Java. "Buitenzorg" [i.e. Bogor]
  • Solanum hirsutum Kit. ex Kanitz (1863:440) nom. illeg. non S. hirsutum (Vahl) Dunal (≡ Solanum memphiticum J.F.Gmel.)
  • Solanum acutifolium Kit. ex Kanitz (1863:440) nom. illeg. non S. hirsutum Ruiz & Pav. (≡ Lycianthes acutifolia (Ruiz & Pavon) Bitter)
    • Lectotype: P. Kitaibel s.n. (Herb. Kit. fasc. IX No. 103, BP)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018). These two names were published as alternative names.
    • Typuslokalität: Slovakia. Árva.
  • Solanum nigrum var. macrocarpum Schur (1866:178)
    • Neotype: F. Schur s.n. (LW00210121, LW)
      • Designated by Särkinen et al. (2018). These two names were published as alternative names.
    • Typuslokalität: Romania. Sibiu: Sibiu "In ruderalis prope Cibinium Transilv."
  • Solanum nigrum var. glabrum Lowe (1872: 73)
    • Lectotype: R.T. Lowe 16 [a] (BM000943025, BM)
      • Designated by Edmonds (2012:127).
    • Typuslokalität: Portugal. Madeira: "Mr. Gordon’s kitchen garden, the Mt."
  • Solanum nigrum var. hebecaulon Lowe (1872: 73)
    • Type: No material located (Särkinen et al., 2018)
    • Typuslokalität: Portugal. Madeira: "Levada de Sta. Luzia, above Funchal"
  • Solanum ganchouenense H.Lév. (1912:295)
    • Holotypus: J. Cavalérie 3815 (E00284474, E)
    • Isotypes: E (E00284475), K (K001080605), P (P00055234)
    • Typuslokalität: China. Guizhou: Gan Chouen
  • Solanum chenopodiifolium H.Lév. (1913:531)
    • Holotypus: E.E. Maire s.n. (E00284477, E)
    • Typuslokalität: China. Yunnan: "Tong-Tchouan plaine"
  • Solanum peregrinum E.P.Bicknell (1915:332)
    • Holotypus: E.P. Bricknell 7719 (00138955, NY)
    • Isotypes: NY (00073847)
    • Typuslokalität: United States of America. Massachusetts: Nantucket County, Nantucket street
  • Solanum probstianum Polg. (in Probst, 1838:30)
    • Lectotype: S. Polgár s.n. [Herb. Polg. 4051] (BP-272406, BP)
      • Designated by Särkinen & al. (2018).
    • Typuslokalität: Cultivated in Hungary at Györ, from seeds sent by R. Probst from Switzerland (Solothurn: Derendingen [Kammgarnfabrik Derendingen] in 1932)
  • Solanum pseudoflavum Pojark. (1955:338)
    • Holotypus: V.S. Titov 2220 (LE)
    • Typuslokalität: Kazakhstan. "Between Vernoy Alma-Ata, Vernenskiy area, between town of Vtrnym and the station Karasukskaya, the village of Dimitrivka"
  • Solanum nigrum f. pallidum Wessely (1960:311)
    • Holotypus: Wirtgen s.n. (W)
    • Typuslokalität: Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate: Neuwied
  • Solanum nigrum f. luridum Wessely (1960:311)
    • Holotypus: I. Wessely 0.23 (GFW)
    • Typuslokalität: Germany. Saxony: Dresden," Trümmerstellen am Postplatz"

Solanum nigrum var. incisum Täckh. & Boulos (1974:101)

    • Holotypus: L. Boulos s.n. (CAI000175, CAI)
    • Typuslokalität: Egypt. Faiyum, Sinnuris

Quellennachweise[Bewerke]

Trivialnamen[Bewerke]

Afrikaans: Nastergal
العربية: عنب الذئب
azərbaycanca: Qara quşüzümü
башҡортса: Ҡара эт ҡарағаты
বাংলা: কাকমাচি
català: Morella vera
corsu: Cinnerone
čeština: Lilek černý
Чӑвашла: Йыт çырли
Cymraeg: Codwarth Du
dansk: Sort Natskygge
Deutsch: Schwarzer Nachtschatten
dolnoserbski: Carna ronica
Ελληνικά: Στύφνο
English: Black Nightshade
español: Hierba mora
eesti: Must maavits
euskara: Mairu-belar
فارسی: تاجریزی
suomi: Mustakoiso
Nordfriisk: Hünjbei
français: Morelle noire
हिन्दी: मकोय
hornjoserbsce: Čorne wrónidło
Kreyòl ayisyen: Agoman
magyar: Fekete csucsor, fekete ebszőlő, kutyabogyó
Bahasa Indonesia: Ranti
italiano: Morella comune
日本語: イヌホオズキ
ಕನ್ನಡ: ಕಾಕಮಾಚಿ-ಕಾಗೆ ಗಿಡ
한국어: 까마중
lietuvių: Juodoji kiauliauogė
македонски: Црн зрнец
മലയാളം: മണിത്തക്കാളി
Bahasa Melayu: Beliwan
नेपाली: कबाई
Nederlands: Zwarte Nachtschade
norsk: Svartsøtvier
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਮਕੋ
polski: Psianka czarna
پنجابی: میکو
português: Erva-moura, Erva de Santa Maria
Runa Simi: Q'aya-q'aya
русский: Паслён чёрный
srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски: Pomoćnica
slovenčina: ľuľok čierny
slovenščina: Lulok čierny
српски / srpski: Помоћница
Seeltersk: Fuulbäie
Sunda: Leunca
svenska: Nattskatta
Kiswahili: Mnavu
தமிழ்: மணத்தக்காளி
తెలుగు: కామంచి
ไทย: มะแว้งนก
Türkçe: Köpek üzümü
українська: Чорний паслін
中文(简体)‎: 龙葵
中文(繁體)‎: 龍葵
中文(台灣)‎: 龍葵
中文: 龙葵
Wikimedia Commons Für weitere Multimedia-Dateien siehe unter Solanum nigrum bei Wikimedia Commons. (de) – (Please translate this into Nordfriisk.)